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Pragmatics

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mireya medina silvagnoli

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Pragmatics

Pragmatics:
Chapter 10
Direct and Indirect Speech Acts
H.P. Grice 1
Grice's Conversational
Maxims
-Philosopher
-Says that indirect speech is contextually dependent
-Created 4 conversational maxims
2
No negative judgements
-ask for confirmation or elaboration
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Key Issues:
How context influences language use
How speech acts perform functions
Direct and Indirect speech acts
Social rules in conversation: Grice's cooperative
principles

Each Speech Act or event involves:
British Philosopher John Austin
Violations:
-Sarcasm
-Unintentional
6
By: Mireya and Kia
& Nicole

Social Context refers to the social relationship and setting of the speakers and listeners.
Linguistics context refers to the social relationship and setting of the speakers and listeners.
Epistemic context refers to background knowledge shared by the speakers and the listener.
Previously
: We defined semantics as the study of the meanings of words and sentences by examining their individual meaning and how they are combined to make larger meanings
Pragmatics:
Is the study of how people use language within a context and why people use language in a particular way
Points out that we can use language not only to say things, but to perform an act, which makes language useful to us.
Also known as a speech act
Locutionary act - The act of saying something
Illocutinary act _ The act of doing something
Speech acts that perform their functions in a direct and literal manner are called direct speech acts.
Sentence Type
Speech Act
Table 10.1 Pg 83
Function
Declarative
Assertion
Denial
Conveys information
Claims information is
true or false
Interrogative
Question
Elicits Information
Imperative
Orders
Gets others to behave in
certain ways
Physical context refers to where the conversation takes place, what objects are present, and what actions are taking place.
Indirect speech acts are not performed in a direct, literal manner, what the speaker intends is quit different from what is literally said
Indirect speech acts evoke a response to an utterance different from the response the literal meaning would arouse
Varying from Culture to Culture
-Complimenting
-Apologizing
Requesting
-Inviting
-Offering and responding
11
Maxim of Quantity
Maxim of Quality
Maxim of Relevance
Maxim of Manner
3
-Direct and literal statements
-Model proper classroom discourse
-Encourage interaction
14
Maxim of Quantity
-Make your contribution as informative as possibe, but not more than required
4
Maxim of Quality
-Claim based on sufficient evidence speaker believes to be true
5
Maxim of Relevance
-Speaker obeys orderliness of conversations
-No random topic shifts
7
Maxim of Manner
-Clear
-Not vague or wordy
-Varies based on culture
8
Especially important for teachers
-Clear and concise
-Avoid expressions students may not be expected to know

9
Cross-Cultural Pragmatics
-Expressions and interpretations vary on culture
-Vary in compliments
10
Tips for Teachers
-Do not assume everyone thinks in same way
-Present rules and symbols of language in context
-Make culture a component of instruction
12
Use scenarios, case studies, cultural capsules in reading, writing, and discussion
13
•(2013). Maxims of conversation. Oxford Bibliographies, Retrieved from http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199772810/obo-9780199772810-0129.xml

(2010). Pragmatics. In Foreign Language Teaching Methods. Carl Blyth, Editor. Texas Language, Retrieved from
http://coerll.utexas.edu/methods/modules/pragmatics/02/

Gillet, A. (1997). Intercultural communication. Using English for Academic Purposes, Retrieved from
http://www.uefap.com/articles/arena.htm
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Full transcript