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Greek Mythology

Also check out my Greek Mythology Quiz that follows this prezi up. Enjoy!
by

Nicole Flemming

on 15 January 2015

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Transcript of Greek Mythology

Greek Mythology
The Beginning
In the beginning there was nothing, only chaos. Then out of a void of chaos came Gaea, who was the Earth, and Oranos, who was the sky and the stars.
Gaea and Oranos had many children together, the first group were the three
cyclops, then the three Hecatoncheires (monsters with 50 hands and 100 arms) and finally the twelve Titans.

Unfortunately, Oranos was a bad father. He took one look at the cyclops and Hecatoncheires and cast them into Tarturus- a deep, dark pit in the Underworld because he disliked them and thought that they were very ugly.
When Gaea found out what Oranos had done to their children, she became furious and started plotting against him.
Gaea created a flint sickle and tried to convince her other children, the Titans to overthrow their father. They were all to afraid to do it........... except the youngest one, Kronos.
Kronos then successfully defeated and exciled Oranos and became the next ruler, but he did not free the Cyclops and Hecatoncheires from Tarturus.
Kronos and the Titans ruled for many ages. He later married the Titan Rhea and they lived happily together until Gaea prophesied that one of his children will overthrow him just like he did to his father, Oranos.
To avoid the prophecy, every time Rhea gave birth to a child he took the child and swallowed it whole.
In time, Rhea became angry at her husband for doing such a thing, so when she gave birth to their sixth child, she got a stone, wraped it in cloth and gave it to Kronos instead.
The trick fooled him and he swallowed the stone, thinking it was their child.
Rhea took the baby (whose name was Zeus) and delivered him to the island of Crete where he grew up under the care of nymphs.
When Zeus became older, then married a wise nymph named Metis who devised a plan to recover Zeus`s brothers and sisters and defeat his corrupted father. Metis prepared a drink for Rhea to give Kronos that would make him spit out all of his children.
So Rhea gave Kronos the drink and out came his children, First Hades, then Poseidon, Hera, Demeter and finally Hestia, they were all alive and fully grown. (they were immortal and unharmed)

The gods declared war against Kronos and the Titans. They fought greatly, and the Titans were slowly winning, but Zeus was cunning. He traveled down to Tarturus and freed the Cyclops and the Hecatoncheires so that they could join his side and fight.
Eventually, the Titans finally fell and were banished to Tarturus. To split the Earth fairly, the three brothers, Zeus, Poseidon and Hades each picked a straw. Zeus got the longest straw, and became the god of the sky, the ruler of Heaven and Earth. Poseidon got the medium straw and became the god of the sea. Hades got the shortest straw and became god of the Underworld and the dead.

The Gods
After the war and peace was declared, Zeus and the cyclops worked together to build a huge palace in the sky called Mount Oylmpus. It is home to the throne room for the 12 gods of Olympus.
only the most worthy gods have a throne on Olympus.
The 12 Gods of Olympus are:
Zeus
Hera
Poseidon
Demeter
Athena
Artemis
Apollo
Ares
Aphrodite
Hephaestus
Hermes
Dionysus
Hestia (formerly)
Zeus
King of the Gods, ruler of Olympus. God of the sky, thunder, and lightning.
Son of Titans Kronos and Rhea, husband of Hera.
Zeus was everywhere, seen and unseen, he could change the the weather as easily as he could change his shape.
Poseidon
Hera
Demeter
Athena
Apollo
Artemis
Ares
Aphrodite
Hephaestus
Hermes
Dionysus
Hestia
Daughter of Titans Kronos and Rhea
Goddess of the Hearth and the home
Queen of Olympus, Goddess of marriage and childbirth
God of the sea and earthquakes
Goddess of wisdom, crafts, strategy and battle
God of prophecy, music, truth, healing and the sun
Goddess of the hunt, archery, wildlife and the moon
God of war
Goddess of love and beauty
God of fire and blacksmiths
Messenger of the Gods, God of thieves, messengers, travelers and flight
God of wine and the wild
Goddess of articulture, seasons, and the harvest
Daughter of Titans Kronos and Rhea, sister and wife of Zeus
Son of Titans Kronos and Rhea, husband of sea nymph Amphitrite
Other Gods
Hades
Persephone
Queen of the Underworld (four months a year), Goddess of Springtime
Daughter of Demeter, wife of Hades
Eros
Hebe
Daughter of Zeus and Hera, wife of Hercules
Cupbearer to the Gods, Goddess of youth
Pan
Nemesis
Goddess of revenge
Hectate
Iris
Daughter of Titans Thaumas and Elektra
Goddess of the rainbow, personal messenger to Hera
Goddess of magic
Son of Titans Kronos and Rhea
Lord of the Underworld, god of the dead
Unknown parents (but most likely Ares and Aphrodite)
God of love, constant companion of Aphrodite
Son of Hermes and Thymbris
God of the Wild
Daughter of Titans Kronos and Rhea, mother of Persphone
Daughter of Zeus and Metis
Athena`s birth is a strange one. Zeus had heard a prophecy that if his wife Metis bore a son he would overthrow Zeus just as happened to his father and grandfather. Zeus was worried and deeply concerned, so he lured Metis in with kind words, and then when she least expected it, he swallowed her whole. A couple days later, Zeus had the mother of all headaches. Hephaestus knew what was happening and split open Zeus`s head with an axe
Son of Zeus and Leto, twin brother of Artemis
Daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo
Son of Zeus and Hera
Unknown parents, wife of Hephaestus
Son of Zeus and Hera, husband of Aphrodite
Son of Zeus and nymph Maia
Son of Zeus and mortal princess Semele
and out sprang Athena, armed and ready for battle. Athena has invented many things such as the chariot, the ship, the plow, the saddle, the rake and the olive
tree. She is Zeus`s head adviser and favorite child. Although she is also the
god of battle she is nothing like Ares for she battles strategically and for reason, unlike Ares who is chaotic and encourages war and bloodshed.
Hestia is a former Olympian who gave up her throne for Dionysus since there were only twelve. She now has a place sitting by and tending the Hearth (fireplace) in the middle of Olympus. She is very caring, peaceful and kind and remains mostly out of the affairs of the
other gods and goddesses. Along with Artemis she is a virgin goddess.
After giving birth painlessly to her first child named Artemis, Leto was ready to give birth to her second, named Apollo. But Hera was angry and refused to grant Leto childbirth on the mainland. But right away the infant Artemis sprang into action and called upon a wind spirit to zip them away to a distant
Myths
In Ancient Greece there was a cruel king called Polydectus. He was keen to marry the mother of Perseus, Danae. Perseus was not fond of Polydectus and so the king sent him away on a quest expecting him not to return. His quest was to go and kill the gorgon Medusa and bring back her head. Medusa used to be a very beautiful girl, however, she was very vain. She had made the mistake of boasting that she was the most beautiful girl in the land and that there was not even a goddess more beautiful than her. The gods heard this and to punish her they turned her in to a gorgon- a monstrous creature with snakes for hair, anyone who she laid eyes upon would immediately turn to stone.
Knowing this was an impossible task Perseus visited the Temple of Athena to pray for help. The gods heard his prayers and granted him 5 gifts. These were Hades helmet of invisibility, a sword, a shiny shield and a magic pouch from the underworld. The final gift was from Hermes and was his winged sandals which gave him the ability to fly.
He flew to the cave where Medusa lived and bravely walked through the entrance. Perseus wondered how he was to defeat a creature that he could not look directly at. Then an idea came to him. He remembered the gifts that he had been given by the gods. Using his shield Perseus looked at the reflection of Medusa, he shut his eyes and swung his sword and with one swift swoop Perseus cut off the head of Medusa. He placed it in to the magic pouch and set off to return the head to the king. On showing the head to him, the king looked in to the gorgon’s eyes and instantly turned to stone. Perseus had succeeded in his challenge and now his mother was safe.
Perseus and the gorgon Medusa
Theseus and the Minotaur
According to legend, king Minos ruled Athens and forced the Athenians to deliver seven youths and seven maidens every nine years. They became prey of the Minotaur in the labyrinth, and Athens escaped further sanctions through their obedience. The Minotaur was a terrible monster with the body of a man, and the head of a bull, born from the union of Pasiphae and the bull offered as a gift to Minos by Poseidon. The sacrifices of the Athenians ended only when Theseus, son of Aegean ruler of Attica, traveled to Crete as part of the youths to be sacrificed, but once in the labyrinth he killed the Minotaur and managed to find his way out of the labyrinth with the aid of Ariadne, the daughter of Minos. Ariadne fell in love with Theseus as soon as he arrived, and gave him a ball of thread which he unraveled behind him as he walked through the labyrinthine corridors. After successfully defeating the Minotaur, exiting then became a simple matter of following the thread backwards towards his freedom.
In a tragic turn of events, Theseus sailed back to Athens forgetting in his elation to replace the black sails with white ones as a signal of victory. His father Aegean who was watching for the returning ships from the Sounio rock saw the black sail, and in despair for what he thought was a failed mission that resulted to the death of his son, ended his life by jumping into the sea. The sea henceforth is named Aegean sea in his memory.
Prometheus and Epimetheus were spared imprisonment in Tartarus because they had not fought with their fellow Titans during the war with the Olympians. They were given the task of creating man. Prometheus shaped man out of mud, and Athena breathed life into his clay figure.
Prometheus had assigned Epimetheus the task of giving the creatures of the earth their various qualities, such as swiftness, cunning, strength, fur, wings. Unfortunately, by the time he got to man Epimetheus had given all the good qualities out and there were none left for man. So Prometheus decided to make man stand upright as the gods did and to give them fire.
Prometheus loved man more then the Olympians, who had banished most of his family to Tartarus. So when Zeus decreed that man must present a portion of each animal they scarified to the gods Prometheus decided to trick Zeus. He created two piles, one with the bones wrapped in juicy fat, the other with the good meat hidden in the hide. He then bade Zeus to pick. Zeus picked the bones. Since he had given his word Zeus had to accept that as his share for future sacrifices. In his anger over the trick he took fire away from man. However, Prometheus lit a torch from the sun and brought it back again to man. Zeus was enraged that man again had fire. He decided to inflict a terrible punishment on both man and Prometheus.

The Creation of Man by Prometheus
Only daughter of Titan Perses and Asteria
Daughter of Nyx (night) and Erbos
The End
Sources:
greekmythology.com, theoi.com, mythweb.com, google images, personal knowledge and Wikipedia.
island where Leto could safely give birth. Zeus (who was very impressed with his daughter) offered her three wishes. Artemis wished for a set of silver arrows so that she could hunt like her twin brother Apollo,
forever virgin. Zeus granted all her wishes and more, he gave her a throne on Olympus and made her a goddess.
Hephaestus was born very ugly and unable to walk. His mother Hera took one look and him and cast him off of the top of Mount Olympus where he fell for 2 days until he dropped into the ocean. There he was rescued by the Oceanids and given a workshop in an ocean grotto, where he foraged and and designed wonderful
magical items and inventions in a token of thanks. Soon enough, Hera spotted the amazing things that he had
created and invited him back to Olympus where the gods gave him a throne.
Aphrodite has no parents, she rose out of the ocean on a blanket of sea foam. People soon started noticing love blooming and power radiating all around her wherever she went. All the Gods adored her and insisted
agreed (much to Hera's objections). She was later married to Hephestus to prevent further conflict.
Hermes was very clever and cunning even when he was a child. Right after he was born he snuck out of the cave while his mother was sleeping and stole some of his brother Apollos cattle. Before long, Apollo found out what Hermes had done and took him to Zeus, demanding that he return his cattle. Hermes denied everything
so Zeus flew down to his cave and returned the cattle to Apollo who was given a lyre that Hemres had invented while stealing the cattle. Apollo forgave Hermes and left happily with his lyre and
cattle. Zeus made Hermes promise to never lie again, but
was secretly very proud of his son and granted him a spot on Olympus. Hermes went on to become one of the gods most trusted messengers.
Dionysus mother was struck down by Hera as soon as Hera found out that Zeus had sired another child. Zeus arrived and carried away the unborn child where he put him in the care of mountain nymphs to be raised until Hera had calmed down. Dionysus then traveled the world with a group of partying Maenids and Saytrs. He invented wine and studied the art of wine-making.
Olympus. Dionysus has the abiliy to bring joy and divine bliss or drive a man mad, thus reflecting the two-sided nature of wine.
Eventually, Zeus declared that it was safe to come to Mount Olympus and granted his son Immortality and a throne on
After the Titan war, Zeus married Hera, making her Queen of the gods instead of his first wife Metis. But she is always very angry and disapproval towards Zeus's other wives and children. She takes out her rage on them since she knows she does not stand a chance against her husband.
But there was a time where she lead a rebellion against Zeus with the other gods and tied him in chains, taking his thunderbolt.
With the help of a giant Zeus escaped. For punishment he hung her from the sky with gold chains until she swore never to rebel again.
Ares is a very fierce god and enjoys bloodshed, but underneath it all he is a coward and a very sore loser. If he lost a battle, he would cry for days, disturbing even the most powerful gods.
Hercules was half man and half god. His mother was a mortal. But his father was the king of all the gods, the mighty Zeus. But Hercules did not know he was part god until he had grown into a man.
Right from the beginning, Hera, Zeus' wife, was very jealous of Hercules. She tried all kinds of ways to kill him, including sending a couple of big snakes into his crib. Hercules crushed those snakes in a flash! Hercules was incredibly strong, even as a baby!
Zeus loved his little son. He figured that sooner or later Hera might actually find a way to kill little Hercules. To keep his small son safe from attack, Zeus sent him to live with a mortal family on earth. Hercules grew up loved and noble. But he didn't fit in on earth. He was too big and too strong. One day, his earth father told him he was a god, well, part god anyway.
The rest of the story of Hercules is a bunch of little stories that together tell the tale of how Hercules earned his way into the heavens, to take his place with the gods.
Hercules had a cousin named Eurystheus (Eury for short). Eury was the king of a little village in the city-state of Argos. Eury was an evil man. He thought everyone wanted to steal his crown, especially Hercules. One day, when Hera and Eury were chatting about their mutual hatred for Hercules, Hera came up with a plan - a plan to kill Hercules!
Hera helped Eury design 12 Labors (missions or tasks) that Hercules had to complete. Supposedly, when Hercules had completed the 12 Labors, he would earn his immortality, or so Hera promised. But really, Hera and Eury were certain that one of their "labors" would surely kill Hercules, probably the very first one.
Hercules was no fool. He asked the Oracle at Delphi if this was a smart thing to do. The oracle agreed that it was. Actually, the oracle had said, "If you complete 12 Labors, immorality will be yours." Being an oracle, she never explained what she meant by "immortality" - would he live forever in legend or for real? Hercules never asked. (She would not have told him anyway.)
Much to to Hera and Eury's amazement, Hercules completed all the tasks successfully and Hera had no choice but to grant him immortality or risk enraging Zeus.
Hercules
Ares is not well liked by other gods and man and rather feared. Ares loves a good battle and most often joins them. He is the opposite of his half-sister Athena as he charges into battle without thinking and destroys everything in his path.
Poseidon`s temper could change in a second. He was mostly calm and gentle like the sea, but when he was angry, he could cause earthquakes, tsunamis and huge maelstroms.
Although he has a throne on Olympus, he spends most of his time at his undersea palace. He also created the first horse while in a contest with Athena.
Armed with his mighty thunderbolt, he punished those that were guilty and patrolled the skies above the Earth
and in the heavens. Although he his first wife was Metis, he made Hera his queen. He has many other wives and children, much to Hera dismay.
Right after he was born safely on an distant island, he made himself a bow and arrow and went off to kill the dreaded python that Hera had sent to kill his mother. Apollo uses the
term moderation a lot. He believes that it is very important in everyday life. Along with his sister
Artemis, Apollo hunts with his bow and arrows. (but his arrows are gold instead of silver)
Demeter is often accompanied with her only daughter, Persphone who she loves very dearly. She is also a very motherly figure. When Demeter is sad, crops and plants wither and
die, but when she is happy the sun shines and famers get ready to harvest grains, wheat and
corn.
By Nicole Flemming
To punish man, Zeus had Hephaestus create a mortal of stunning beauty. The gods gave the mortal many gifts of wealth. He then had Hermes give the mortal a deceptive heart and a lying tongue. This creation was Pandora, the first women. A final gift was a jar which Pandora was forbidden to open. Thus, completed Zeus sent Pandora down to Epimetheus who was staying amongst the men.
Prometheus had warned Epimetheus not to accept gifts from Zeus but, Pandora's beauty was too great and he allowed her to stay. Eventually, Pandora's curiosity about the jar she was forbidden to open became too great. She opened the jar and out flew all manor of evils, sorrows, plagues, and misfortunes. However, the bottom of the jar held one good thing - hope.
Zeus was angry at Prometheus for three things: being tricked on sacrifices, stealing fire for man, and for refusing to tell Zeus which of Zeus's children would dethrone him. Zeus had his servants, Force and Violence, seize Prometheus, take him to the Caucasus Mountains, and chain him to a rock with unbreakable adamantine chains. Here he was tormented day and night by a giant eagle . Zeus gave Prometheus two ways out of this torment. He could tell Zeus who the mother of the child that would dethrone him was. Or meet two conditions: First, that an immortal must volunteer to die for Prometheus. Second, that a mortal must kill the eagle and unchain him. Eventually, Chiron the Centaur agreed to die for him and Heracles killed the eagle and unbound him.
Some other myths include:
Hades and the River Styx
Persephone and Demeter
Helen of Troy
Circe the witch
The Cyclops cave
Echo the nymph
a small group of nymphs to be her companions, and to be a
that she should have a throne on Olympus. Zeus
And many more!
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