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Transcript of Thesis
Bill Passes in the House
Signed into Law by
Bill Passes in the Senate
United States House Resolution 4011: North Korean Human Rights Act of 2004
Politics of Policy Change:
United States Congress & Human Rights in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea
BA Candidate '14 Lewis & Clark College
What factors influence a change in foreign policy?
Formal Change in Foreign Policy
: adoption of H.R. 4011
adoption of H.R. 4011
extends to mean “the adoption of and agreement to follow the protocols and meet the objectives therein.”
Theories & Hypotheses
Duties Beyond Borders (Stanley Hoffman, 2008)
Congress passes unprecedented legislation changing the U.S. policy toward North Korean human rights with H.R. 4011
Bill Introduced in the House
Why did the United States adopt H.R. 4011 North Korean Human Rights Act of 2004?
Bait & Switch (Julie A. Mertus, 2004)
Media Influence (Piers Robinson, 2008)
The U.S. Congress passes an unprecedented bill to address human rights concerns in the DPRK during nuclear escalation on the Korean Peninsula. The bill commits funding and makes new establishments, but no progress.
Duties Beyond Borders
Bait & Switch
If a nation perceives itself to have duties to people beyond their domestic borders, then the nation will change their foreign policy toward other states in ways that reflect those obligations.
If the public consumed internationalist media about North Korean human rights violations, then it is more likely that the United States adopted House Resolution 4011: North Korean Human Rights Act of 2004 in response to media attention to the issue of North Korean human rights violations.
If the United States wants to gain access to the Democratic Peoples’ Republic of Korea’s nuclear activity, then they will bait the DPRK under the guise of foreign aid and switch their agenda upon gaining access.
Low Level of Support
Low Level of Support
Duties Beyond Borders: 2001-2013
Media Influence: 2002-2004
Bait & Switch: 2002-2004 + Review of Renewal Processes in 2008
Writing "positive" legislation for the campaign trail
Bush Doctrine is largely interventionist.
Coverage of political activity naturally increases with campaigning
The theory of Bait & Switch best explains my dependent variable.
My other two theories provide evidence for Bait & Switch as well:
*Now We're Reminiscing How We Used to Flex In Texas: How the Bush Administration Manipulated Human Rights Legislation into Security Gains
Challenges of Working With Rogue States
"Uses" of Human Rights Legislation
Bait & Switch
Illuminates challenges of implementing human rights policy objectives
Misuse of Congressional Legislation
pork barrel legislation, rider legislation, "Christmas tree legislation," omnibus legislation, etc.