Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Isomerism

No description
by

Harvey Buckle

on 3 August 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Isomerism

Isomerism
Starter
Watch this
Basics
Stereoisomers are subdivided into two classes—conformational isomers, which
interconvert by rotation about a σ bond and configurational isomers that
interconvert only by breaking and reforming a bond.
Aim
To know the types of isomerism that exist
To be able to demonstrate this in practical form
Plus...
Cis-trans isomers can occur in alkenes or cycloalkanes (or heteroanalogues) and differ in the positions of atoms (or groups) relative to a reference plane. According to IUPAC, E/Z isomers refer to alkenes of the form R1R2C=CR3R4 (R1 ≠ R2, R3 ≠ R4) where neither R1 nor R2 need be different from R3 or R4. •

A chiral carbon is a carbon joined to four different atoms or groups. • An optically active compound can rotate the plane of polarized light as it passes through a solution of the compound.
Optical isomers are enantiomers. Enantiomers are non-superimposeable mirror images of each other.
Diastereomers are not mirror images of each other.
A racemic mixture (or racemate) is a mixture of two enantiomers in equal amounts and is optically inactive.

There are two forms of eniantomer, D and L depending on whether the rotate the plane of polarised light right (D) or left (L) when it passes through it. This test is called POLARIMETRY and a 50:50 mixture of D and L forms will not affect the light.
And...
Configurational isomers are further subdivided into cis-trans and E/Z isomers and optical isomers.


Rules for determining priorities

These are known as Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (CIP) rules after the people who developed the system.
Disastereomers
What are they?
Physical and chemical properties of Cis/Trans & E/Z Isomers
No chemical differences
Physical differences because of different intermolecular and intramolecular interactions

Cis/trans ethene dicarboxylic acid

Polarimetry
Polarimeters measure the optical actvity of eniantomers.

Watch the board
Full transcript