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Group A : Grape Varieties Poster (SE2016)
Transcript of Group A : Grape Varieties Poster (SE2016)
Grapes grow best in cooler climates but they are susceptible to frost and need warm summers to ripen properly.
It buds early, so is very susceptible to frost, needs dry and warm summers, and ripens erratically and late. Its natural sweetness means that in hot climates it becomes blowsy, with not enough acidity to balance the huge amounts of sugar.
On the other hand, picking early to retain the acidity, means that the varietal aromas do not develop, and these aromas may be further diluted by overcropping in an attempt to overcome the low yields.
The primary aromatic descriptors used to define Gewurztraminer are typically lychee, rose petal, Turkish delight and intense perfume.
On the palate it is marked by its full texture, low acidity, stone fruit (mango, peach and apricot) and spicy (ginger and cinnamon) flavors.
Pink grapes can give the wine a copper hue
Gewürztraminer produce more sugars than most white wine grapes and thus produce sweeter wines.
Particulaly fussy about soil and climate. Gewürztraminer hates chalky soils and is very susceptible to disease.
Type of wines
Although the name is German, Gewürztraminer grapes are grown most widely not in modern-day Germany, but in the Alsace region of France.
In cool climate, gewürztraminer is full-body with medium/high alcohol, medium acidity, dry, medium or sweet. It has floral (rose) and lychee flavors
In moderate climate, gewürztraminer has high alcohol, is full-body, medium/low acidity. It has tropical fruit and lychee flavors
In ripeness/late harvest, sweet spice, raisin and botrytis are present.
With age, gewürztraminer is meat/savoury with spice (ginger).
Rarely oaked, though can be vinified in large, neutral oak.
Drought resistant heat-loving high vigour variety
Best examples come from low yield old bush vines using spur pruning on poor soils
Requires heavy pruning and bud thinning for best quality
Generous irrigation on high potential sites will lead to over production and thin pale wines lacking flavour
Vines produce best wines when left under some stress, good variety for windy sites
Berries ripen late and with sufficient warmth can ripen up to 18%abv
This variety tends to suffer from coulure and is susceptible to downy mildew & bunch rot due to tight berry clusters
Does best in warm climates, not well suited to marginal climates
Planting at higher altitudes can help bolster some lost acidity at ripening
High alcohol blending grape, though more varietal wines are being made in the New World
Flavour profiles : Young - Strawberries, Raspberries, Herbs
Good Quality/Age - nuts, leather, blackcurrant, black cherry, pepper, coffee, tar leather earthiness as yields are increased
Garnacha often used for fortified wines and Vins Doux Naturels with rancio / oxidised character
Grenache doesn't seem to be too fussy for soil, once it's warm and dry
Preference is for poor nutrient, well-drained
Best French examples are grown in schist or granite
In Priorat, soils are schist and Licorella and best vineyards are planted up to 700m+
Most Rioja Garnacha is planted on sandy soils in Rioja Baja (though plantings are on the decline)
Chateauneuf du Pape Galets Roules (heat retaining stones) help give Grenache the heat that it loves, though the variety is happy ripening without them, too
Type of wines
Young Grenache makes light and delightful fruity wines, as long as yields are kept under control.
There's a wash of uninteresting bland and pale Grenache coming out of the new world, as this is a high vigour variety there's some abuse that can be found, inthe interest of bulking up quantity rather than quality.
The best examples of Grenache are found in:
-- in and around Chateauneuf du Pape (most wines are around 50%+ Grenache) Gigondas (up to 80%) & Lirac.
Wines are big and spicy, further complexity introduced with the addition of further blending grapes (Mourvedre and Syrah).
Garnacha provides the big fruited, high alcohol backbone.
-- Traditional Priorat wines made from extremely low yield Garnacha bush vines are concentrated and dark, powerful highly alcoholic wines with an inky character. The style has changed in recent times, making a more accessible style with big black currant fruits, with Cab or Merlot likely blended in.
-- the New World home for Old World Rhone blends, Australia does particularly well with GSM blends. based on Grenache, the wines can range in style from jammy and intense to spicy and herbaceous
Not easy to grow for high quality wines.
Prone to powdery mildew.
Needs warm and long growing season, although not overly hot as this causes sugar levels to delevop too much faster than aromas resulting in very oily wine which lacks in perfume.
If picked too early, the wine is bland.
Naturally low yield.
Planted worldwide with key places such as Rhone Valley, N. and S. America, Australia and New Zealand.
In moderate climate you can expect a typical Viognier to have pear, floral (violet) aromas.
Medium acidity, mid to high alcohol, full body.
In hot climates, the flavours are more exotic, stone fruit (peach), floral, the acidity drops to low and it is full body which perhaps oily feel.
When fully ripen the grapes take a deep yellow colour and strong perfume with high levels of alcohol.
Heat retaining, rich in granite soils. The Eden Valley in Australia grows the grape in loam and clay soils.
Type of wines
The type of wine in general is medium acidity, full body and high alcohol.
Viognier is sometimes co-vinified witih Syrah for extraction of colour and bouquet purposes especially in Cote Rotie.
It is also the only variety permitted at Chateau Grillet for Condrieu in the Rhone Valley.
It can be oaked but good skills are a must as too much oxygen easily destroys aromas.
Flavours from oaking are vanilla, toast and creaminess. Sometimes made into late harvest wine with flavours of dried fruit but somtimes developing some bitterness. Most cannot improve with age.
The grape has high content of phenols (what makes it oily).
Grenache oxidises easily, and in general does not age well, so unless seeking out high quality & premium examples, drink this variety young for the biggest joy. It's historically known as a blending grape, but under the right circumstances and care can produce wines with incredible complexity and longevity.
Further examples of the uses of Grenache : Spanish Rosados, Tavel Rose, Fortified Vins Doux Naturels (Banyuls, Maury), Known as Cannonau in Sardinia
Only variety allowed for Condrieu, high in phenols, prone to powdery mildew, low yield.
In the vineyard, it is one of the first to bud in the spring but last varietal to ripen in October.
It needs time to soften it's tannin and to get full phenolic ripeness.
It is prone to mildew, is susceptible to coulure and it needs a good amount of sun to ripen well.
Best vineyards are usually in slops to maximize this effect
Fussy about ripening conditions.
In moderate climate Nebbiolo shows high acid, high tannin and medium to full bodied wines with medium to high alcool.
It possesses flavor charecteristic of roses(floral), tar, plum and red fruits.
Oak can be used mainly to soften the tanins, but tend to eliminate floral characterist, showcasing more vanillin, toasted flavors.
It's a varietal that ages very well.
Best exemples of Nebbiolo are found in Piemont, mainly on calcereous marl and thrives also on sandy soils, producing lighter, highly perfumed wines.
Good exemples also exist on schist soils in Lombardia and porphyry in Gattinara.
Good soil drainage is necessary for this varietal
Type of wines
Wines are long lived and present high acid, high tannin, medium to full body and medium/high alcool.
Barolo and Barbaresco, Nebbiolo's best, have legislation regarding aging of 9 months in oak with a total of 21 months of aging for barbaresco and 1 year in oak with a total of 3 years aging for Barolo.
Riserva's can be produce for an extra aging of 24 months for barbaresco and 21 months for barolo.
Chenin Blanc can be very different depending on growing region.
At its core it is a vigorous vine. It tends to bud early and ripen late.
It is prone to botrytis.
The vineyard hazards for Chenin Blanc are spring frost, powdery mildew and fungal disease.
It has high quality potential.
Ripening can be very uneven, resulting in harvest being completed in several tries.
The Chenin Blanc berry is thin skinned with naturally high acid and suger levels.
The soils Chenin Blanc thrives on varies greatly from region to region and the style of wine produced.
The grape readily shows terrior.
Heavy clay based soils are best for botrytized dessert wine that will age.
Limestone based soils drive home sharp acidity.
Soils high in silex showcase the minerality and calcerous clay produces fuller wines with acidity and weight.
Type of wines
Chenin Blanc is a grape that can do it all.
In the New World, particularly in California, South Africia and Australia, it is grown in high yields for lower quality bulk wine production, often blended with Chardonnay.
In these blends it is added for its acidity.
It is really in the Old World that Chenin is prized for quality wine. Its true home is in the Loire Valley.
Here is comes into its own and is made in many different styles from sweet (moelleux) dessert wines when its susceptibility to to botrytis is a great benefit.
Chenin Blanc also produces beautiful, mineral driven, high acid dry and off dry wines.
Its high acidity makes this grape great for sparkling wine production.
For sparkling it can be the sole grape in the Loire and often used in blends for the sparkiling wines of Limoux.
Cabernet Franc grows in elongated tightly packed clusters with medium sized thin skinned berries.It does best in cooler inland regions.
It buds early making it susceptible to coulure, but ripens earlier then its offspring Cabernet Sauvignon and is therefore revered by winemakers in Bordeaux in poor vintages.
Cab Franc can be susceptible to Pierces Disease. When overcropped it will produce green herbacious aromas.
It is commonly grown using VSP, cordon trained and spur pruned.
Cabernet Franc can add perfume and acidity to Bordeaux blends.
As a single varietal, in optimum conditions it can be intensely coloured with medium+ body, acidity and tannins.
Generally it is lightly pigmented with meduim body, good acidity and soft smooth tannins.
Typical flavours are red berries, red plum, roasted red peppers, with some herbaceousness and spice.
New world wines tend to be more jammy and less herbacous.
Cabernet Franc tends to like cooler soils.
Quality examples grow well on limestone soil as well as stone, chalk and sand.
Type of wines
Cabernet Franc is often grown to use in Bordeaux type blends.
As part of the blend it can soften tannins and smooth out a wine.
Cheval Blanc-St Emilion is an outstanding example of a Cabernet Franc dominant Bordeaux of exceptional quality.
As a single varietal, it can produce eloquent highly perfumed wines. In Chinon and Bourgueil high quality Cabernet Franc has high acidity with firm tannins and will age successfully for 15+ years.
Italy has the second highest planting of Cabernet Franc, mostly in Friuli.
Hungarian and Californian Cabernet Franc is showing promise as a quality wine that is full bodied, tannic and floral with rich berry and spice flavours.
Niagra Peninsula Cabernet Franc has raspberry and herbaceous flavours with medium acidity.
Unctious icewines are also made with Cabernet Franc in Ontario.
Most Cabernet Franc should be consumed within 5 years, but high quality ones will age beautifull for 15+ years.
Wines from the Loire regions of Chinon and Bourgueil set the standard for quality.
This poster provides details, for each chosen grape variety, about :
Which soils work well with
Attributes of the grape berry itself
Resulting styles of wine
The Sangiovese berry is thin skinned.
It is susceptible to rot due to rainfall in the fall.
Primary aromas are of juicy cherry, raspberry and plum. Herbal and earth notes are prevalent and it takes oak well.
Sangiovese is early budding and ripens slowly. It is often harvested late into October.
It grows and ripens best in Moderate to Hot climates and is most at home in Italy, most popularly in Central Italy.
In hot vintages it is rich and alcoholic and high in acidity with harsh tannins in too cool vintages.
The vine is vigorous and is prone to over-production.
Type of wines
Sangiovese is a dry red wine.
It has quality potential but is also the base of much bulk wine prouction.
It can be a stand alone grape but benefits from blending to help balance the high acid and sometimes harsh tannins. It can also lack fruit.
Quality wines are made from low yielding plants.
High yielding vines are light in color, higher in acid and low in alcohol. They are prone to oxidation.
Wines can go through extended maceration to be able to extract more color and flavor.
Sangiovese is adaptive to many soils.
Low fertility soils are best.
Limestone based soils bring forth powerful aromas and elegance.
Thrives in Chianti Classico on the shale-clay soils.
Since Sangiovese is a naturally vigorous vine that produces better wine at low yeilds much research is being done the use of better clones, appropriate rootstocks, and low vine training systems. There are many different clones.
AKA- Brunello, Prugnolo, and Gentile.
The base of blends of Chianti, Vino Nobile de Montepulciano and many Super Tuscans.
Pinot noir has among the earliest budbreak and harvest dates when compared to most varieties.
Since it is a short-season variety, it is chosen for marginal sites where temperatures preclude other varieties from reaching full maturity.
Early budbreak often puts it at risk for spring frost. Likewise, temperatures are more likely to be cool and damp during the bloom period, which can result in coulure or millerandage, thus reducing fruit set and yield
Pinot Noir wine is produced from red grapes but it is much lighter in color than other red wines.
Pinot Noir flavors and aromas include roses, fruits, black cherry, berry, and currant.
Other Pinot Noir characteristics include high acidity and low tannins.
Pinot Noir's flavor depends heavily where it is grown and how the wine maker treats it, so a good winery can produce exceptional wines.
However, Pinot Noir is finicky and can produce poor wines even when the wine maker does things right.
Low-to-High Body (better quality = more body)
Pinot Noir succeeds in many soil types.
As with all grapes, optimal wine quality has been obtained when vines are grown on well drained soils. Burgundy Pinot Noir soils are variable in lime content.
Soils in most of the better appellations are limestone derived, but others in the Burgundy appellation are depleted of lime in the surface levels.
Relative to the Bordeaux varieties, which appear to be best adapted to deep gravels and sands, Pinot Noir does well in heavier, clay-loams and silty-clay-loam soils.
Typical Grand Cru soils in Burgundy have 30-40% clay particles.
What seems to primarily distinguish soils of the better vineyards is: moderate depth (and water holding capacity), excellent internal drainage and good external drainage.
Shallow soils do not retain sufficient water to carry the vines over rainless periods and deep soils provide water so abundantly that excessive vegetative growth competes with fruit development, wood maturity and results in shaded canopies which encourage bunch rot.
Type of wines
While France is the perfect terroir for Pinot Noir, which is where the grape provides its finest expression, Pinot Noir is planted all over the world. Aside from offering the best expression of Pinot Noir, France has the most planted hectares of the grape
The United States has the second largest area, followed by Germany, New Zealand, Italy, Australia, Chile, Argentina, South Africa.
The finest producers of Pinot Noir in California are located in Sonoma , especially in the Russian River appellation, the Central Coast regions and Santa Barbara.
There are now numerous producers of Pinot noir in the central coast of California that are making very good wines including Brewer Clifton and Ojai.
In California, the degree of ripeness and alcohol has become an issue of contention between some growers, producers and wine lovers.
The success of Pinot noir in America is not limited to California. The grape has had great success in Oregon and Washington State.
Pinot noir is successfully grown in several other countries including Australia, Italy, New Zealand, Spain and Switzerland.
Late budding, avoiding Spring frosts.
Mid to late ripening.
Generally associated with cooler climates.
Cold hardy, and resistant to downy mildew, while being only slightly susceptible to powdery mildew and botrytis rot.
In the best sites it will produce quality grapes from high yields.
Invariably light skinned, delicate, with sound acidity, and distinct aromatics, but varying in structure, sugar content and potential depending on location.
Can produce all styles of wine, from bone dry through to intensely sweet.
Grows on a wide variety of soils, noteably borne out by its success throughout Alsace, where there is much variation, including limestone, granite and marl.
Shows typicality by location: in the Mosel, it is synonymous with slately soils; while in the Clare Valley, a distinctly dry style is again produced from vines grown on thin silt and shale, overlaying gravel and clay.
Type of wines
Riesling can show distinctly different characteristics depending on provenance.
Generally it displays floral, fruity,mineral and spicy attributes.
Young Riesling often shows apple and lime notes and refreshing acidity; aged Riesling can show marked honey and petroleum aromas.
Generally long-lived and without the need for oak maturation, the best will last as long as a red Bordeaux of equivalent quality.
Germany is its heartland, producing a range of styles: Mosel wines will show high acidity, delicate sweetness but nevertheless lots of character; Pfalz a fuller, fatter, honeyed style.
In Alsace, wines are typically drier and fuller-bodied than their German counterparts.
The Clare and Eden Valleys in South Australia are also important producing regions,while Washington State in USA is showing promise.
Early to mid ripening.
Vigourous, and best short pruned.
Very susceptible to downy mildew and leaf hoppers.
Sometimes prone to coulure.
At risk of Winter/Spring frosts, and drought.
Texturally, Merlot provides a soft, fleshy body that is so often the counter to Cabernet grip.
Generally the fruit is sweet and plummy, however greener flavours are known if the berry fails to sufficiently ripen.
However, where the climate is too warm, Merlot wine will be jammy and distinctly lacking in acidity.
Grows best on relatively free-draining clay/limestone soils in conjunction with moderate temperatures.
Classic estates in Pomerol, Bordeaux, contain vines planted on an atypical blue-clay known as molasse.
Type of wines
More often seen as a foil to other sparing partners in the Bordeaux Blend, but single varietal Merlot can be luscious and complex, while still retaining freshness, with excellent examples to be found from the Central Valley region in Chile, and Napa and Sonoma in California.
Rarely less than medium bodied, and accessible in its youth, it can also be the source of much run-of-the-mill ripe, 'international style' wine found loitering on supermarket shelves.
Nevertheless, it is an integral part of many of the world's most complex and long-lived wines, such as those from the great estates of the Medoc.
Widely grown globally, although it's popularity has waned since a peak in the mid 1990s.
Still the most planted variety in France.
Pinot Gris is one of the best known mutations of Pinot Noir.
This is one of the contributing factors to the grapes berries bluish-grey to brownish-pink color (they find their color somewhere in between the purplish-blue of Pinot Noir and greenish-yellow of the closely related Pinot Blanc).
Pinot Gris grows in a variety of different countries including France, Italy, Germany, Austria, Canada, USA, New Zealand, South Africa and Australia...
This grape also goes by a multitude of different names and will present in several different styles (depending on where it grows). This vine is early budding and ripening, vigorous but not always productive. There is some susceptibility to botrytis and downy mildew. Bunches and berries are small-very small.
Pinot Gris or Grigio (though the same grape) can present in different fashions.
If allowed to reach full ripeness Pinot Gris can offer rich, low acid, fuller bodied wines and on the other end of the spectrum a fairly neutral and tart example can be made with producers referring to these styles as Pinot Grigio.
That being said, thereare always exceptions made.
Fruily in Italy names all of their varietal wines regardless of character or quality.
There is the potential for high quality wines which are also high in demand however as stated earlier there are many unexciting examples made.
Flavors can range from light citrus-dried fruit & apricot.
Pinot Gris enjoys deep, rich and fertile soils.
This may contribute to its full bodied nature
Type of wines
There seems to be 2 schools of practice when it comes to Pinot Gris which is Cool climate/Late harvest and Moderate climate/Early harvest.
Cool climate/Late harvest: is where you get your higher alcohol, full bodied, nutty, viscous, spicy wines that can be either dry or off-dry.
Moderate climate/Early harvest: will be more dry, medium acidity, citrus and light bodied wine.
Vidal Blanc, or Vidal (Ugni Blanc x Rayon D’Or), is a white grape variety that belongs to the group of highly productive hybrids that tend to overcrop,
It results in reduced growth and lower fruit and wine quality.
Vidal’s propensity to overcrop has been attributed to its high bud fruitfulness and large clusters.
Research has shown that the best way to manage this variety is with balanced pruning and cluster thinning—also referred to as “balanced cropping,”
Vidal Blanc grape is very winter hardy and is grown extensively in Virginia and the Northeast, as well as in Canada.
The high, natural acidity in Vidal Blanc makes it a good candidate for a variety of grape styles, ranging from light and crisp vintages to rich, syrupy ice wines.
Thick-skinned berries make them good for colder climates.
Vidal has been widely planted in eastern and mid-western states due to its many positive attributes:
moderate cold hardiness (more cold hardy than Vitis vinifera varieties),
spring frost avoidance (due to late bud break),
bunch rot resistance and especially its versatile and desirable wine style and quality.
Type of wines
Vidal Blanc has rich aromas and tastes.
The wine produced is very fruity, with lush tropical notes such as pineapple.
David Ian Burlton,
Aneley Caceres Martinez,
Robert James Stephenson,