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Silver

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Samantha Milstein

on 17 March 2014

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Transcript of Silver

Silver

Samantha Milstein
Chemical Symbol
of Silver:

Ag
What Silver Looks Like
Origin of the Name Silver
The element silver’s name was derived from the Anglo-Saxon world “siolfur” which means “silver.” The symbol of silver, Ag, comes from the Latin word “argentum” meaning “silver.”
Discovery of Silver
Silver has been around for millions of years and it is truly impossible to determine who was the true discoverer of the element. There is evidence that people have used the metal silver for an extremely long time and it seems that it was found soon after gold and copper were discovered. Silver was used in jewelery and as a medium of exchange in 4000 B.C. and its earliest known workings were in eastern Anatolia. The Ancient Egyptian civilization from 6000 B.C. used silver. The evidence is shown in the cave paintings where the extraction process of the metal is shown. In 900 B.C. different compounds of silver were found in various places in Ancient India. Silver’s use in alloys can be traced to the 14th century. For example, the allow of sterling silver is an alloy of copper and silver.

Modern Day Uses of Silver
Silver has thousands of uses and is used in many different ways. Silver is used in pharmaceuticals as it has a unique bacteria-fighting quality. Silver is used in pharmaceuticals such as silver sulfadiazine which is a powerful burn treatment. Silver is also used in electronics as it is the best conductor of all metals. It’s used in electrical and motor control switches around the world. Silver is also commonly used as a chemical catalyst since it improves the efficiency of chemical reactions. It is also seen as a reflectant in windshields of cars, homes, and office buildings. Silver is an ideal industrial material and in printed circuit boards for connecting paths of electronic circuitry. Silver is also found in the control panels of cable television, telephones, and devices using digital electronics since it is a superconductor. It is also used in electroplating and brazing and soldering. Silver is used in coins, jewelry, and silverware as well. It is also used in photography, mirrors and coatings, solar energy, and water purification.
Where is Silver Found?

Silver is usually found in rocks and as a constituent of minerals such as acanthite. Silver can also be found in and near the surface or in soils and sands and can be found in pure masses or nuggets in a variety of kilograms. Silver can be obtained through mining in pure silver deposits or while mining for other ores, such as as argentite. Silver mines are located all over the world.
How is Silver Isolated and Purified?

The formation is silver metal is seen in the reaction where copper metal is dipped into a solution of silver nitrate, .


This reaction results in the formation of silver crystals and a blue-green solution of copper nitrate. Silver is purified through a complicated process. It begins by covering the processed silver in nitric acid. It is then heated, strained, and added to cold water. After, it is filtered again and then copper is inserted into the liquid to extract the pure silver.
The decomposition of
silver oxide:


Balanced Equations Using Silver
The formation of the precipitate silver chloride and an aqueous solution of calcium nitrate:
The formation of the precipitate silver chloride and an aqueous solution of magnesium nitrate:

Where is Silver Located on the Periodic Table
Silver
Silver is located in Group 11 of the periodic table, giving it certain properties such as...
Electronic Configuration
1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6, 5s1, 4d10
or
[Kr] 5s1, 4d10
Silver is one of the exceptions in electronic configuration. Since silver has 9 electrons in the 4d orbital, it takes one electron from its 5s orbital to fill the 4d orbital. This results in the 5s orbital having only one electron while the 4d orbital is full.
Atomic Radius
Since Silver is located towards the middle of the periodic table, the atomic radius trend for the periodic table allows us to identify silver’s radius to be not very small but not very big. It was a relative medium radius size however is more on the small size. Silver’s actual radius size is determined to be 144 pm. The smaller an atom’s radius is, the more attraction exists between the electrons and nucleus of that atom. This attraction pulls the atoms in tighter, making the radius smaller. The periodic trend for atomic radius is that as you go down a group, the radius increases and when you go from the left to right, the radius decreases.
Silver
Ionization Energy
Ionization energy is the amount of energy it takes for an atom to take, or attract, another atom’s electrons. Atoms that have a smaller radius have a higher ionization energy because it takes more energy to take away one of their electrons. The ionization energy trend on the periodic table shows that as you go from left to right, the ionization energy increases and as you go down a group, the ionization energy decreases.
Since Silver is located towards the middle of the periodic table, the ionization energy trend for the periodic table allows us to identify silver’s ionization energy to be intermediate since it has a middle sized radius. Silver’s actual ionization energy is measured to be 7,5762 eV.
Silver
Electronegativity
Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself. The smaller an atom is, the high its electronegativity is. The electronegativity trend on the periodic table shows that as you go from left to right, the electronegativity increases and as you go down a group, the electronegativity decreases. Since Silver is located towards the middle of the periodic table, the electronegativity trend for the periodic table allows us to identify silver’s electronegativity to be an intermediate amount. Silver’s determined electronegativity is 1.93 Pauling scale.
Silver
Reactivity
Atoms are more reactive when they have a bigger radius because they give out more electrons freely. Silver, however, does not follow the normal reactivity trend for metals. Silver is a coinage metal, meaning that instead of the reactivity increasing down a group, the reactivity level actually decreases. Silver has a generally low reactivity level.
Silver
Density
Density is the mass per unit of volume. The density of silver is determined to be 10.501 grams per cubic centimeter.
Melting Point
Boiling Point
and
The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which a substance melts, undergoing a phase change, turning into a liquid. The melting point of silver is 1234.93 K, 961.78°C, or 1763.20°F.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which a substance boils, undergoing a phase change, turning into a gas. The boiling point of silver is 2435 K, 2162°C, or 3924°F.
What Type of Element
is Silver?
Metal
This gives silver certain physical and chemical properties, such as...
Physical Properties
Lustrous
Since silver is a metal, it is very lustrous, or shiny.
Electrical Conductor
Silver is a metal which means it is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Actually, silver is known to have the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any of the metals.


Silver is a metal which makes the element very malleable, meaning it can be hammered, pressed, bent into a shape without breaking or cracking.

Malleability
Metals, such as silver, have higher melting points than most nonmetals as seen by the chart below.
Melting Point
Silver
Ductile
Metals, such as silver, have the property of being ductile which means it has the ability to be drawn or pulled into wires.

Most solids, including silver, are solid at room temperature.

Solid at Room
Temperature

Metals are very opaque, meaning they are not transparent.
Opaque
Chemical Properties
Metals have 1-3 electrons in the outer shell of each atom. As shown in silver’s valence electrons, silver’s outer shell of 5s1 contains only 1 electron, following this rule of metals.
Electrons in the Outer Shell
Metals, such as silver, are damaged by oxidation resulting in tarnishing or rusting of the element. Silver is one metal that is affected by oxidation.
Corrode Easily
Metals, such as silver, relatively lose electrons easily compared to nonmetals and metalloids. This is based on an elements electronegativity, the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself. As seen in with silver’s electronegativity, it has a smaller electronegativity compared to other elements that are not metals or metalloids.
Electrons Lost Easily
Forms Basic Oxides
Metals tend to form basic oxides. Since silver is a metal, it does form basic oxides.
Compounds
Silver forms a variety of compounds. These compounds have a wide range of properties and uses. Lets take a look at some of these compounds...
Silver Chloride
Formula
AgCl
Melting Point
455°C
Boiling Point
1,547°C
Molar Mass
143.32 grams per mol
Appearance
White Solid
Density
5.59 grams per centimeter cubed
Uses
Silver chloride has many uses from being in photography films and plates to reference electrodes such as in pH meters. Silver chloride is also used in infrared windows. It is also seen in bandages and wound healing products and even takes part in antimicrobial agent for the conservation of drinking water in water tanks.
Bond Type
Polar Covalent
Lewis Structure
What it Looks Like
Silver Iodide
Formula
AgI
Melting Point
558°C
Boiling Point
1,506°C
234.77 grams per mol
Molar Mass
Yellow, Crystalline
Structure
Appearance
Density
5.675 grams per
centimeter cubed
Uses
Silver iodide has many uses. It is used in photography film as well as an antiseptic in medicines. It is also highly used in cloud seeding which is a way to create precipitation.
Bond Type
Ionic Bond
Lewis Structure
What it Looks
Like
Silver Nitrate
Formula
Melting Point
Boiling Point
Molar Mass
Appearance
Density
Uses
Bond Type
Lewis Structure
What it Looks
Like
212°C
444°C
169.87 grams per mol
White Solid
5.35 grams per
centimeter cubed
Silver nitrate has many uses. It can be used as a salve for eyes of newborns in order to prevent infections. It is also used in medicine to stop bleeding. Silver nitrate is also seen in hotels and hospitals as a disinfectant and can even replace laundry detergent.
Ionic Bond
Silver Sulfate
Formula
Melting Point
Boiling Point
Molar Mass
Appearance
Density
Uses
Bond Type
Lewis Structure
What it Looks
Like
652°C
1,085°C
311.799 grams per mol
Colorless Crystals
5.45 grams per
centimeters cubed
Silver sulfate is used
in silver plating. It is also used in bandages and other health related products such as medicines.
Ionic Bond
Silver Fluoride
Formula
AgF
Melting Point
435°C
Boiling Point
1,159°C
Molar Mass
126.87 grams per mol
Appearance
Yellow-Brown Solid
Density
5.85 grams per
centimeters cubed
Uses
Silver fluoride in mainly used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It is also a strong oxidising agent and is used in the fluorination and preparation of organic perfluorocompounds
Bond Type
Ionic Bond
Lewis Structure
What it Looks
Like
Example Stoichiometry Problem #1
Balanced Equation:
Question:
How many molecules of silver phosphate are produced when 7.00 grams of sodium nitrate are produced in the above reaction?
Solution:
Example Stoichiometry Problem #2
Balanced Equation:
Question:
Solution:
How many molecules of silver sulfide are formed when 300.0 grams of silver reacts with an excess of sulfur?
My Favorite Element...
Molecular Shape: Linear
Bond Angles: 180 degrees
Number of Bonds: 1

Molecular Shape: Linear
Bond Angles: 180 degrees
Number of Bonds: 1
Molecular Shape: Trigonal Planer
Bond Angles: 120 degrees
Number of Bonds: 4
Molecular Shape: Linear
Bond Angles: 180 degrees
Number of Bonds: 1
Molecular Shape: Tetrahedral
Bond Angles: 109.5 degrees
Number of Bonds: 6
Example Stoichiometry Problem #3
Balanced Equation:
Question:
What volume of silver chloride is produced when 3.7 grams of silver nitrate react with an excess of sodium chloride?
Solution:

All of the compounds mentioned before contain intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are the attraction forces that occur between molecules. The stronger the intermolecular forces are in a substance, the higher the melting point and boiling point is. This is because the energy that is required to cause a phase change corresponds to the intermolcular forces in a molecule. In order to break apart the molecule, the energy that is required is higher for molecule with stronger bonds. So a molecule with strong intermolecular forces would need more energy to cause a phase change resulting in a higher melting and boiling point.

Intermolecular Forces
Using the Melting Point
We can use the informatin about the melting point and boiling point to arrange our compounds from the one with the most intermolecular force to the one with the least.
Based on Melting Point:
Silver Sulfate (652°C), Silver Iodide (558°C), Silver Chloride (455°C), Silver Nitrate (444°C), and Silver Fluoride (435°C)
Silver Fluoride, Silver Nitrate, Silver Sulfate, and Silver Iodide all contain ionic forces. This ionic bonding the attraction between oppositely charged ions. Both Silver Nitrate and Silver Sulfate are polyatomic ions meaning they have ionic forces since their molecules with net charges form the compounds. In ionic bonds, atoms share their electrons with each other, give or take away electrons so that their net charge is equal. Silver Chloride contains dipole-dipole attraction. This is the attractive force between the positively charged end of one polar molecule and the negatively charged end of another polar molecule.

Bonding in Compounds
Example of an Ionic Bond
Example of a Dipole-Dipole
Isotopes
There are 38 known isotopes of silver. They range from Ag-93 to Ag-130. Naturally occurring silver is composed of the two stable isotopes Ag-107, with a 51.84% abundance, and Ag-109, with a 48.16% abundance).

Silver in Health
Silver has become a key factor in fighting against infection and disease. Because of this trait, silver has been becoming extremely popular in health related products. In bandages that are used to treat wounds as well as reducing the threat of infections, silver is one of the most important elements involved. In addition to bandages, silver is also a major part of treatment in hospitals as it reduces the spread of surgical infections in operating rooms and patient care areas. Silver used in medical products has resulted in the reduction of the growing threat of antibiotic-resistant germs spreading through the hospitals. Extremely tiny amounts of ultra-fine particles of silver have been discovered to be best for helping with the treatment of burn victims as well as being used in prolonged treatments. Now that we can coat materials in metallic silver, there are efficient ways to overcome wound care and device-related infections which have before been a problem to manage in terms of hospital care. Also, silver is capable of breaking down cell walls in bacteria causing bacteria to have trouble forming immunity to the metal. Because of silvers qualities, it has become extremely useful and popular within hospitals and health related products.
Silver in Technology
Because of silver’s unique qualities, including its strength, malleability, ductility, electrical and thermal conductivity, reflectance, and ability to endure extreme temperatures, silver is becoming very popular in technology. The concern that silver is running low is a problem beginning to rise up as the uses of silver in technology become more dominant. Everything from medical uses, to jet engines, to phones and computers, to jewelry and coins, silver is becoming one of the most commonly used products and this might be a problem in the near future.
Fun Facts
-Many types of bacteria, such as algae and fungi, find silver ions and compounds to be toxic. This trait let people use silver coins to store inside of water and wine containers to prevent spoiling because their bacteria killing qualities.

-In India some foods are decorated with Varak, which is a thin layer of silver.

-About 1/3 of the silver produced worldwide is used in photography.

-The two stable isotopes that silver has are almost the same in abundance. This is extremely rare for an element to have.
Works Cited
“Element of Silver.” Environmental Chemistry. Kenneth L Barbalace, n.d. Web. 16
Mar. 2014. <http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/Ag.html#Atomic>.

Ferre, Emily Claire. “Uses of Silver.” Geology. Geology.com, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://geology.com/articles/uses-of-silver/>.

Gagnon, Steve. “The Element Silver.” Jefferson Lab. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele047.html>.

Helmenstine, Anne. “The Difference Between Metals and Nonmetals.” About Chemistry. About.com, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://chemistry.about.com/od/periodictableelements/a/Metals-And-Nonmetals.htm>.

- - -. “Silver Facts.” About Chemistry. About.com, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementfacts/a/silver.htm>.

“Interesting Facts About Silver.” Igentry. N.p., 4 July 2008. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://igentry.blogspot.com/2008/07/interesting-facts-about-silver.html>.

“Intermolecular Forces.” Chemed. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/intermol/intermol.html>.

“Metals and Nonmetals.” Hyper Physics. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pertab/metal.html>.

Ramireddy, Swetha, Bingyao Zheng, and Emily Nguyen. “Periodic Table.” Chemwiki. ecdavis, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Inorganic_Chemistry/Descriptive_Chemistry/Periodic_Table_of_the_Elements/Periodic_Trends>.

“Silver.” Chemistry Explained. Advameg, Inc., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/P-T/Silver.html#b>.
Works Cited Continued
“Silver.” Minerals Education Coalition. Minerals Education Coalition, 2013. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://www.mineralseducationcoalition.org/minerals/silver>.

“Silver.” Periodic Table. Royal Society of Chemistry, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/47/silver>.

“Silver- Ag.” Lenntech. Lenntech B.V., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/ag.htm>.

“Silver Chloride.” Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver_chloride>.

“The Silver Element.” The Silver Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <https://www.silverinstitute.org/site/silver-essentials/the-silver-element/>.

“Silver Fluoride.” Chem Spider. Royal Society of Chemistry, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.56407.html>.

“Silver in History.” The Silver Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <https://www.silverinstitute.org/site/silver-essentials/silver-in-history/>.

“Silver Iodide.” Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silver_iodide>.

“Silver Processing.” Encyclopedia of Britannica. Encyclopedia of Britannica, n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/544891/silver-processing>.

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The End
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