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Mindaugas Balciunas

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of FILM STUDIES


Visual Signification
Technical signification
Research of critical analysis
Critical analysis combine many literature forms such as academic writings, academic reviews, journals, press ect. So it takes a lot of responses from audience, focus groups, interviews or internet. It is discussions of film, from conversations and interviews to deeply analytic studies of individual films or portions of a film belongs to research of film.
Almost always involve assumptions are implicit or explicit, about audience response.
Even the most formalistic or stylistic analysis, which assumes it is operating only on an aesthetic level, or which assumes it is “purely descriptive” begins to make implicit concepts of audience response part of its analysis once it moves to any degree of generalization. To take a simple example, to label a film, or film segment, “comic” is to make an assumption about its effect on the audience.
Iconography - the science of identification, description, classification, and interpretation of symbols, themes, and subject matter in the visual arts.
An ideology is a world view, a system of values, attitudes and beliefs which an individual, group or society holds to be true or important; these are shared by a culture or society about how that society should function.
Camera movement
a motion-picture scenario giving the complete action, scenes, etc., in detail and in the order

Aims to explore the essence of the cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large.
Structuralist theory
Marxist film theory is one of the oldest forms of film theory. Sergei Eisenstein and many other Soviet filmmakers in the 1920s expressed ideas of Marxism through film. In fact, French theorists who, beginning in the late 1960s, argued the importance of ideology in various systems of representation. According to Marxist theorist Louis Althusser, the capitalist system operates through the use of so-called repressive state apparatuses (RSAs) such as police, goverment. Also through ideological state apparatuses (ISAs), which include schools, the family, religion, and media systems.

Formalist theory
Is a theory that is focused on the formal, or technical, elements of a film: i.e., the lighting, sound, set design and scoring. Use of color, shot composition, and editing. It is a major theory of film study today.
A branch of film theory that itself is based on structural linguistics. Structuralist film theory emphasizes how films convey meaning through the use of codes and conventions not dissimilar to the way languages are used to construct meaning in communication.
French Marxist film makers, such as Jean-Luc Godard,
would employ radical editing and choice of subject matter, as well as subversive parody, to heighten
class consciousness and promote Marxist ideas
Visual elements of cinema gives motion to a pictures movement on screen, provides universal power of communication.
A camera shot is the amount of space that is seen in one shot or frame. Camera shots are used to demonstrate different aspects of a film's setting, characters and themes. As a result, camera shots are very important in shaping meaning in a film.
Extreme long shot (animation on right) contains a large amount of landscape. It is often used at the beginning of a scene or a film to establish general location (setting). This is also known as an establishing shot.

Long shot (animation on right) contains landscape but gives the viewer a more specific idea of setting. A long shot may show the viewers the building where the action will take place.

Full shot (animation on right) contains a complete view of the characters. From this shot, viewers can take in the costumes of characters and may also help to demonstrate the relationships between characters.

Mid shot (animation on right) contains the characters or a character from the waist up. From this shot, viewers can see the characters' faces more clearly as well as their interaction with other characters. This is also known as a social shot

Close-up (animation on right) contains just one character's face. This enables viewers to understand the actor's emotions and also allows them to feel empathy for the character. This is also known as a personal shot.

Extreme close-up (animation on right) contains one part of a character's face or other object. This technique is quite common in horror films, particularly the example above. This type of shot creates an intense mood and provides interaction between the audience and the viewer.

Sound on film

Reception theory represents means of understanding media texts, how texts are read by audiences. An important concept of reception theory is that the media text — the individual movie or television program—has no inherent meaning in and of itself. Instead, meaning is created in spectator's and text interaction; in other words, meaning is created as the viewer watches and processes the film. Reception theory argues that contextual factors, more than textual ones, influence the way the spectator views the film. Contextual factors include elements of the viewer's identity as well as circumstances of exhibition, the spectator's preconceived notions concerning the film or television program's genre and production, and even broad social, historical, and political issues. In short, reception theory places the viewer in context, taking into account all of the various factors that might influence how she or he will read and create meaning from the text.

The dominant, most accepted theory/model is Active Audience: Katz & Lazarsfeld; 1940 they concluded that media was not so influential in affecting audience's attitudes. But was a part of larger system in situated culture. Film or media's message is more than often passed through 'opinion leaders' - the individuals who pay's close attention to media and filter's the text so passed message to family or friends can be understood without consuming the text.
Narrative Analysis
Narrative can be considered to be the chain of events in a cause-effect relationship occurring in time and space.
In order to analyze the narrative of a film, first need to make the distinction
between the plot and the story of the film
. This is sometimes referred to as the discourse and story of a film. Narrative may also be called the story thought story mainly refers to the events that describe the narrative.
Expressionism: is a model of narrative analysis - this term embraces an early 20th century style of art, when music and literature is
charged with an emotional and spiritual vision of the world.
'Avant-gardism' distinguishes it from "modernism": Peter Bürger, for example, says avant-
gardism rejects the "institution of art" it challenges social and artistic values, necessarily involves political, social, and cultural factors
Simply comparing
alternative media
to the mainstream media it ignores the profound effect that making media has on the makers.
As producers and actors within their community, modern alternative media activists redefine their self-image, their interpretation of citizenship and their world
Alternative media implies the opportunity to create one's own images of self and environment being able to re codify one's own identity with the signs and codes that one chooses, thereby disrupting the traditional acceptance of those imposed by outside sources
Mainstream is the concept of
film analysis in a global scale.
Mainstream includes all popular culture and media culture disseminated by mass media
Focused group is made of 25-30 members. To them is provided very detailed target audience responses before screening. Sometimes they are not required to give response about the film, but show their opinion if they agree or not with the idea, interviews can be recorded. These days screening film to a focused group is expensive due to large amount of data and equipment required.
Narrative analysis

Narrative can be characterized by:
Accounts which contain an element of transformation - ie. change over time. Containing
some kind of action and characters that are brought in a plot line. Mostly involves life story research or oral history adopts a qualitative approach, using semi-structured interviews rather than questionnaires. All narratives are always co-constructed, even if the audience is oneself or an imaginary other, or if the story is told to oneself in the form of a daydream.
Narrative analysis argues that - There is no ‘unbiased account of the past.
Some of most interview accounts are likely to be ‘storied’ (ie. in narrative form). The social world is itself ‘storied’ (ie. ‘public’ stories circulate in popular culture, providing means people can use to construct personal identities and personal narratives). Ricoeur argues that narrative is a key means through which people produced an identity. People produce accounts of themselves that are ‘storied’
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