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Reading in Content Areas

An analysis of reading applications and strategies within the areas of social studies, science & health, mathematics, English, and foreign language.
by

Leah Hoblit

on 18 September 2012

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Transcript of Reading in Content Areas

Anthony Benz
Leah Hoblit Reading in the Content Areas -In secondary education, students are expected to understand, retain, and apply the information they acquire. In order to do so, they must understand the academic language to comprehend, analyze, synthesize, and apply the information that they read. Introduction As content teachers, we are responsible
for instructing students how to capitalize
on these reading strategies in order to
understand the content material.

This includes: developing academic
literacy, developing critical thinking,
and encouraging the development of
metacognitive habits. The most effective content reading instruction occurs when teachers guide students in learning content as students acquire reading strategies

- Pre, during, post reading
- Identifying important concepts
- Authentic reading assignments 1. Chronological Order
2. List Structure
3. Compare and Contrast
4. Cause-and-Effect
5. Problem-Solution
6. Definition or Explanation Organizational Patterns Information is presented according to time, usually beginning with the earliest year.
- Easily shown in a timeline or written paragraph

Applicable Content Areas:
- Social Studies*
- Science
- Music
- Language Arts*
- Foreign Language Chronological Order Uses categorization to help students develop and refine concepts. This structure is used more as an activity than as a text organization.

For example: A teacher may ask the students to group a series of vocabulary words together from a large list, providing a label for each group. List Structure Information that is presented by showing the similarities and differences of two or more concepts.
This is best displayed in the form of a chart, Venn diagram, or written paragraph.

Applicable Content Areas:
- Social studies
- Language Arts
- Health/PE
- Music
- Foreign Language
- Science Compare and Contrast Concerned with the chains of causation and effects. This pattern recognizes that a cause results in effects that become causes of of other effects.

Applicable Content Areas:
- Social Studies*
- Science*
- Health/P.E.
- Language Arts Cause-and-effect Identifies a real or hypothetical difficulty and explains an actual or suggested solution.
For example: This could be used to explain how a vaccine was developed for polio.

Teacher techniques:
1. Have students identify problem in their own words.
2. Ask students to locate recommended solutions in the text.
3. Ask students to prepare a problem and solution statement.

Applicable Content Areas:
- Science
- Health
-Mathematics Problem-Solution Tells the meaning of a concept and/or explains a concept.
The concept is the main idea, and the supporting details are the elements of the definition or explanation.

Applicable Content Areas:
- Language Arts
- Science
- Math
- Social Studies
- Music
- Foreign Language
- Health/PE Definition or Explanation Comprehension is enhanced when readers are prepared to:
1. Understand the ideas and viewpoints of others.
2. Acquire and retain concepts and information.
3. Think critically and creatively
4. Refer to a variety of sources Social Studies Content Study Guides: maps to cognitive processing. Should be given to student prior to reading.

Concept guide: form of a study guide that is concerned with developing students' understanding of an important content concept. To be completed after reading. Strategies and Tools Directions: Write a + (plus sign) before each term that is associated with civil rights, according to the information in your social studies textbook. Write a - (minus sign) before each word that is unrelated to the concepts of civil rights. Be prepared to explain and support your answers using your textbook.

___restrictive covenant ___affirmative action
___treason ___equality
___reverse discrimination ___private education
___segregation ___equal opportunity
___integration ___people's vote
___suspect classification ___open housing
___socialist government ___goods and services Concept Guide Example The most common writing patterns used in the social studies field include:
- Cause-and-Effect
-Definition or Explanation
- Chronological
- Compare/Contrast
- Question-and Answer: the author asks a question and then answers it.
For example: What was the Underground Railroad? In fact, it was not a railroad, but a complex system that helped transport escaped slaves. Writing Organizational Patterns Cause difficulties for students because:

1. unfamiliar vocabulary
2. confusing text structures such as diagrams and research reports Health Content - Authentic Learning Experiences: these are learning situations that enable learners to become engaged with the reading content. The teacher should create real situations that the student can connect to.

- The Frayer Model can be used to develop vocabulary. This model describes what the concept is, its characteristics, examples, and non-examples. Teaching Strategies The organizational patterns must frequently used in health content are:

- Classification pattern: information is ordered under common headings and subheadings
- Definition or Explanation
- Cause-and Effect
- Problem Solution Writing Patterns The study of language arts focuses on the effective use and appreciation of the English language.

Because English has the most varied subject matter, students are going to be required to study a number of subjects, teachers will need to know the important aspects of reading instruction. Language Arts Content Vocabulary Development
- Changes in Word Meanings: Amelioration, Euphemism,
Hyperbole, etc.
- Types of Words: Acronyms, Oxymorons, Homonyms,
etc.
- Denotative and Connotative Meanings

Mediums of Literature
- Novels and Short Stories
- Poetry
- Drama
- Essays and Editorials

Grammar and Composition Aspects to Consider Developing comprehension in a foreign language:

1. Teach students to use a foreign language dictionary
2. Encourage students to write their own ideas in the language
3. List words in English that are derived from the language
4. Have students describe an event in the foreign language
5. Have students write/translate directions in foreign language.
6. List cognates Foreign Language Content So why is this important? - K-W-L Model
- Study Guides
- Concept Guides
- Anticipation Guides
- Fill in the blank activities
- True/False activities
- Charts/diagrams
- Matching exercises
- Short answers/Essays
- Categorizing/Listing
- MANY MORE!!! Summation of Strategies that can facilitate effective reading in specific content areas Directions: Based on your knowledge of the Classical Period, please circle the following terms that influenced changes in the period. Of the terms that you circled, classify them into groups. Be prepared to justify your answers. Example of Learning Activity - Harpsichord - Mozart
- Symphony - Beethoven
- The Enlightenment - Visual art
- Middle Class - Publications
- Haydn - Jean Hellner
- Vocal Music - Sacred music This activity would be facilitated after the specific reading had been done. It is intended to allow students to gather the main ideas from the Classical period and categorize them.
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