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World Architecture Timeline Kaylyn Bro

Linear and Regional time
by

Kaylyn Brough

on 8 October 2012

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Transcript of World Architecture Timeline Kaylyn Bro

Europe Middle East Malta Egypt India Greece Mexico China Lascaux Cave
Montignac, France Carnac
France Terra Amata
France Newgrange
Ireland Skara Brae
Scotland Stonehenge
England Jericho
Palestine Catal Huyuk
Turkey Mohenjo Daro
Pakistan Harappa
Pakistan Ur
Sumer, Iraq Babylon
Iraq Mnajdra
Malta Ggantija
Malta Tarxien
Malta Bent Pyramid of Snefru
Egypt Great Pyramid of Khafu
Giza, Egypt Pyramid of Khafre
Giza, Egypt Zoser Complex
Saqqara, Egypt El Kahun
Egypt Dier El Medina
Egypt Temple of Amun
Luxor, Egypt Temple of Queen
Hatshepsut
Dier El Bahari, Egypt Tel El Amarna
Egypt Temple of Amun
Karnak, Egypt Great Stupa
Sanchi, India Caitya Hall
Karli, India Dholavira
India Palace of Minos
Knossos, Crete, Greece Treasury of Atreus
Mycenae, Greece Lion Gate
Mycenae, Greece La Venta
Mexico Temple of
Quetzalcoatle
Teotihuacan, Mexico Pyramid of the Sun
Teotihuacan, Mexico Pyramid of the Moon
Teotihuacan, Mexico Chichen Itza
Mexico Great Wall
China Tomb of the 1st
Emperor
Xi'an, China 400,000 BC 10,000 BC 4500-2000 BC 3200 BC 3100-2500 BC 3100-1800 BC 2600 BC 8500-6000 BC 2560 BC 2600-1900 BC 7000-4500 BC 2600-1500 BC 2200-2000 BC 600 BC 3500 BC 3500 BC 2500 BC 2530 BC 2500 BC 1800 BC 1550-1080 BC 1470 BC 1480-1370 BC 1350 BC 1300-1200 BC 1400 BC 1200-400 BC 100 AD 150 BC-200 AD 900-1200 AD 200-450 AD 2600-1500 BC 1400 BC 200-100 BC 100-250 AD 1600 BC 300 BC-1600 AD 246-210 BC Kaylyn Brough World Architecture I Oct. 9 2012 Timeline Linear Regional First evidence of a man-made structure
Used as temporary hunting dwellings
Made to fall apart
Central work space centered around a hearth First seen development of spaces beyond survival
Spaces for religion
Existing caves that were painted
Evidence of use by generations of people Megaliths in rows with a cromlech at one end
Marked a tomb
Placement of megaliths was not meant to enclose space but to encourage moment through the space Large mound of earth and rock to mark the landscape
Corbeled interior with an earth mound built up around it
Marked a communal burrial ground Stone houses all connected by walkways
Interior furniture built out of rubble masonry
Doorways used a post-and-lintel system Circular rings of dolmen with a mortise and tenon system
Orientated to follow star, moon and sun patterns
Alter towards the center that suggests it use as ritualistic Stone wall that protected the west side of the city
Wall incorporated towers for protection
Developed in shape
from organic to geometrical First use of metal in architecture
strictly ornamental not structural
Compact mass of buildings for defense
No streets, entered through roof openings Largest and most advanced city in the Indus Valley
developed a system of weights and measures
Bricks were fired instead of air-dried
Residential buildings were separate from more important buildings Workman's quarters sat between citadel and residential buildings
evidence of a social hierarchy
Clay tablets showing evidence of early writing
Similar city layout as to Mohenjo Daro Zigaurat temple inside fortified walls
City had narrow streets
Homes shared party walls
no windows facing the street
doorways did not allow for views into the home Fortified with and inner and outer city
Walls had walkways on top
8 gates that entered into the city
Ishtar Gate - main gate
Tower of Babel
7 level square zigaurat Oval court for gatherings
Post and lintel entrances
Space was filled in with rubble and trash
Interiors were more finished than structures preceding Semi-circular interior spaces
Added structures to main gathering space
Similar layout as Ggigantija Used corbelling in the facade
Stones were more forced and worked than previous, similar styled structures
Large stone sculpture of a goddess Square base
Sides were built at one angle and angle was changed part of the way up
Interior was made of local stone Largest of the Egyptian pyramids
Square foundation made of solid rock
Equilateral pyramid that faces North Valley temple next to Sphinx temple
Causeway that leads to mortuary temple from the Nile
Causeway was angled instead of perpendicular Started as a mastaba with a subterranean tomb
Added 2 phases of a stepped pyramid
Stone column entryway One of few complexes planned before construction
Large homes consisted of approximately 60 rooms
These homes were 50 times larger than the worker's housing
Worker housing was separated from the rest of the city by a solid wall of mud brick Carved tombs out of existing rock faces by highly esteemed workers and artisans
Interiors of homes were highly decorated
Workers carved their own tombs Grand colonnade leading to entrance for ceremonial processions
Hypostyle columned rooms
Rooms dedicated to the worship of gods 3 terraces with gardens lined with columns
Long linear sequence of space emphasized movement and interaction
not meant to be inhabited Parts of the city were divided by the Royal Road
2 palaces that were linked by a bridge over the Royal Road
Worker housing was east of the city
homes had no variation in plan
thin wall construction Similar layout as Temple of Amun at Luxor, only much larger
Hypostyle colonnade led to a room with a statue of Amun
Columns were ornately decorated
Showed both attention to detail and monumental size Citadel was heavily fortified
Water conservation was crucial in the dry climate
several reservoirs
Large sign marked the entrance to the city Largest building in the complex
Uninhabitable
movement around the stupa was a form of physical meditation and prayer
4 gateways were placed facing each cardinal direction
Entry gates were carved of stone in a similar way as wood Interior space carved out of an existing rock face
Leads you through a series of spaces then to a small stupa
3 doorways lead into the main sanctuary Place for social and political gatherings
contained an arena, grain mills, and wine presses
Central courtyard was surrounded by a maze-like arrangement of rooms
Light wells were incorporated throughout Monument tomb
Dromos lead to the facade of the entrance into the tomb
Interior space was a corbelled dome covered by an earth exterior Main entrance into the city marked by lions protecting the city
Post and lintel entry
Walls constructed by cyclopean, rubble masonry Oldest earth pyramid
cone shaped
made of beaten earth and clay
Marks the center of the city Temple was set into city instead of secluded from it
Pyramid using talud and tablero system
Used for human sacrifice to gods Largest building in the city
Aligns with the sun on the first day of Mayan Calendar
Sacrificed bodies were buried at the base of the temple Aligned with volcano in the distance
Pyramid was made with blocks of volcanic rock
Bodies buried at the base were found decapitated and with elaborate jewelery Temple and ball court
Ball court was a large masonry structure
bottom of the walls was sloped
either carved or plastered Series of fortifications against military invaders and nomadic groups
Checkpoints and watch towers were placed at high points for lookouts
Constructed of rammed earth and wood framing Complex was protected by 2 walls
Emperor buried with terra cota soldiers for protection
Tomb was under a pyramid shaped mound
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