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Earthquakes

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by

William Edwards

on 26 September 2012

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Transcript of Earthquakes

EARTHQUAKES Isostatic Adjustments - the up-and-down movement of the crust
to reach balance or isostasy. Isostatic adjustment causes stress in the rocks 3 types of stress
Compression
Tension
Shearing crustal rocks are squeezed together pulls rocks apart pushes rocks in opp. horizontal directions Folding - response to stress without breaking the rock 3 types of folding-
anticline - upcurved folds
syncline - downcurved folds
monocline - dipping bends Faulting - response to stress where
rocks break due to cooling temp.
and low pressure 4 types of Faults
Normal Fault
Reverse Fault
Thrust Fault
Strike-slip Fault Fault - movement of rocks along a break Earthquakes - vibrations of the earth's crust Elastic Rebound Theory - theory that rocks that are strained past a certain point will fracture and spring back to their original shape video? This movement releases energy in the form of vibrations called seismic waves Name two seismic waves aftershock - tremor that follows and is smaller than a
major earthquake Focus vs. Epicenter
Where slippage first occurs is the focus

The point on the earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter http://www.forgefx.com/casestudies/prenticehall/ph/seismic/seismic-waves-simulator.htm 3 types of focus
Shallow - <70km (most damage)
Intermediate - 70km - 300km
Deep - 300km - 650km
why not deeper? Major Earthquake Zones
Pacific Ring of Fire
Mid-ocean ridge
Eurasian-Melanesian Mountain Belt Fault Zones - group of interconnected faults
ex. San Andres Fault Seismograph - instrument used to detect seismic waves Locating an Earthquake Earthquake Measurements -
used to measure the magnitude or intensity of an earthquake Richter Scale - measures magnitude 0 - 10
Mercalli Scale - measures intensity I - XII (roman numerals) Earthquake destructions Seismic Gap -place where the fault is locked and unable to move seismic gaps could represent areas of future earthquakes P Waves
S Waves
Surface Waves (L waves)? http://www.sciencecourseware.org/virtualearthquake/
Full transcript