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2 Long Term Causes of WWI
Transcript of 2 Long Term Causes of WWI
1906 – Britain launched the HMS Dreadnought.
Its speed, range and firepower were far superior.
The Dreadnought made the rest of battleships obsolete.
Germany continued expanding its fleet.
Newspapers and poplar fiction portrayed Germany as new enemy against Britain.
The Emperors’ Alliance failed due to problems in the Balkans in 1885.
Germany and Russia allied to avoid any risk of war on two fronts.
Germany had to stay friendly with Russia.
Austria-Hungary and Russia in conflict due to events in the Balkans.
Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
If any of them were attacked, the others would assist them.
The Naval Race
The Dual Alliance (1879)
The Reinsurance Treaty (1887)
The Dreikaiserbund collapsed.
Bismarck made treaty with the Austrians.
Treaty was primarily defensive to avoid clash between powers.
Germany and Austria-Hungary agreed to help each other if attacked by Russia or neutral if other European countries attacked either of them.
New Course and Weltpolitik
Monday, May 5, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Bismarck’s web of alliances
The emergence of the alliance system.
After 1870 – Kaiser Wilhelm and chancellor Bismarck didn’t pursue aggressive foreign policy.
Bismarck created a web of alliances to:
Germany from attack and
its position in Europe.
1897 – Secretary of State of the Navy, Admiral von Tirpitz.
Germany should mount a naval challenge to Britain.
Naval Law (1898) – provided the building of 17 ships over the next seven years.
Britain responded looking for alliances to avoid conflicts in the Far East.
Britain made alliance with Japan (1902) and came to an entente with France (1904).
1907 - Britain and Russia reached agreement over their relationship with Persia, Tibet and Afghanistan.
Triple Entente - Russia, France and Britain.
Europe divided in to alliance systems.
Long-term Causes of WWI
The Triple Alliance (1882)
1888 – Wilhelm II came to throne in Germany.
1889 - Bismarck replaced by Leo von Caprivi as Chancellor.
The Reinsurance treaty was over and led to Franco-Russian Alliance in 1894.
France and Russia agreed on helping each other if attacked by Germany.
Also agreed on immediate mobilization if members of the Triple Alliance mobilized.
Mutual support in imperial disputes - Anti-British political clause.
France free of isolation and Germany could face war in two fronts.
Weltpolitik – world policy which aimed to build an overseas empire and a strong German navy.
1880 – 1905 – colonial rivalries among European countries created tension.
At first the motives were economical – cheap raw materials, new markets and low-cost labor forces.
Later due to Darwinian belief and nationalistic competition.
Germany desired their influence to be felt outside of Europe.
Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary.
Vague terms but kept France isolated.
The Dreikaiserbund – 3 Emperors’ League (1873)
Turkey, Austria-Hungary and Russia.
Situation in the Balkans
Didn’t rule over the Balkans any more.
Serbs, Greeks and Bulgars had revolted and set up their own nation.
Turkey struggled to hold on to its remaining Balkan territories.
By 1900 they were losing their grip on their multi-ethnic empire.
The most forceful were the Slavs – Serbs, Croats and Slovenes who looked to Serbia for support.
Serbia was seen as a threat by Austria-Hungary.
Russia was seen as the champion of the Slav people.
Keeping the strait of Constantinople open to Russian ships was strategically important.
Continued access to warm-water ports was vital for Russia.
Growing tension in the Balkans after 1900
June 1903 – pro-Austrian King Alexander of Serbia was murdered
Replaced by Russophile King Peter – determined to reduce Austro-Hungarian influence.
1905 – 1906 – Tariff war began and the Serbs turned to France for arms and finance.
Russia, Germany and Austria.
If any of them was at war with another power the others would remain neutral.
The 3 Emperor's Alliance (1981)