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Child Development Theory Timeline
Transcript of Child Development Theory Timeline
Child Development Theory Timeline
By: Amanda Smith
G. Stanley Hall
James Mark Baldwin
John B. Watson
• Viewed children as a tabula rasa, a blank slate, knowing nothing at all and a child’s personality is shaped by their experiences alone.
• Viewed parents could mold their children through careful instructions, rewards, and by being a good example.
• Opposed physical punishment, which led to a change from harshness to kindness towards children.
• Believed that development was continuous, meaning that adult-like behavior is gradually and continuously being developed over the child’s life.
• Did NOT view children as blank slates. He claimed that children have the innate sense of right and wrong immediately from birth. Rousseau's philosophy includes two concepts.
1. He thought that adults should base their ways of thinking a feeling towards a child according to what stage the child is in. The stages include: infancy, childhood, late childhood, and adolescence.
2. Maturation- a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth.
• Viewed development as discontinuous, meaning each change relates and corresponds to the last, through steady steps.
• Often observed plants and animals, and discovered that early parental growth is similar in more than one species. He also learned that no two individuals are exactly the same, and it doesn't just apply to humans.
• These observations constructed this Theory of Evolution, which is made of two related principles.
1. Survival of the fittest, meaning only the strongest with succeed.
2. Natural selection, meaning that having certain qualities or skills that make living in their environment easier.
• Thought of as the founder of the child-study movement.
• Worked with Arnold Gesell (1880-1961) one of his students. They both developed the maturational process, a genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically.
• Hall and Gesell started the normative approach, when measures are taken on a large number of individuals close in age to get an average or general representation.
• During these studies, Hall and Gesell would find information on motor achievements, social behaviors, and personality traits in infants and children.
• Binet and a colleague Theodore Simon were asked how to identify when children have learning problems and need to be placed in special separated classes. They performed the first intelligence test.
• In 1916, Stanford University turned Binet’s test into the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. The scale inspired research in differences in individual development.
• Once intelligence tests became more common, the Nature Vs. Nurture controversy began as well.
• Would often observe children and believed that children grow to understand the world better through a series stages.
• Did not agree with Nature vs Nurture, but rather children are effected by both the environment they grown up in and the genetics and heredity given to them. He explained that they have equal importance.
• Brought up the idea that the environment and heredity of a child are not two opposing forces in a child’s life, but rather they work together.
• Psychosexual theory – how parents manage their children’s sexual and aggressive drives in early childhood is important for healthy personality development. During childhood, sexual impulses move from oral, to anal, to genital.
• 3 Parts to the personality: id, ego, and super ego. Each relate to one another and determine the person’s personality.
• Id- basic biological needs and desires.
• Ego- conscious and rationality
• Superego- conscience
• Stressed the importance of early childhood and parent relationships.
• Expanded the view of development from Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stages of development
• Psychosocial theory- individuals develop personality and attitudes that help them become an active member in society.
• Normal development must be understood in the context to each culture.
• Believed that development is qualitative because changes are stage-like. He believed that nature determines the sequence of the stages and sets the limits which nurture operates. All must pass through one stage before entering the next.
• Founded behaviorism, a branch of psychology that is based on observable human behavior.
• Believed that the environment has the greatest effect in development.
• Believed that adults can shape their children’s behavior through stimulus and response association.
• Viewed development as continuous, meaning the process is gradual strength of the association.
• Known as the father of operant condition, a learning process when behavior is controlled by its consequences.
• Believed the frequency of a behavior can increase if it is followed by reinforcement, and decreased if it is followed by punishment.
• Positive reinforcement- a reward given after a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will happen again in the future.
• Negative reinforcement – a stimulus that when removed after the response, strengthens the response.
• Negative reinforcement IS NOT the same as punishment.
• Social learning theory- emphasizes the role of imitation or observational learning in behavior development.
• Observational learning- learning by observing others.
• Believed observational and social learning starts in early childhood and parental figures are powerful role models.
• Through feedback, children develop self-efficacy, which is a person’s belief that their abilities and skills will help them succeed.
• Believed humans go through specific stages of cognitive development and intellectual progression.
• Stages include: The sensorimotor stage (birth – 2)
The preoperational stage (2 – 7)
The concrete operational stage (7 – 11)
The formal operational stage (11+)
• Cognitive-development theory – children gain knowledge as they explore the world around them.
• Believed that children think very differently from adults.
• Sociocultural theory- children gain knowledge of how to behave in the context of culture through social interaction.
• Emphasized how early development happens from parents’ instruction and interacting in social environments.
• Focused on how one’s culture effects how they think, behave, and develop.
• Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) - the difference between what the child can do without help and what the child can do with help.
• More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) – Examples: Teachers, advisors, administrators, parents, grandparents, older siblings, or older peers.
• Berk, L. E. (2013). Child development (9th Ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson