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In-Text Citations and Quotation Setup

Mr. Bombier's Grade 10 English, Grammar Lesson
by

Karan Tibriwal

on 6 March 2015

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Transcript of In-Text Citations and Quotation Setup

3 Common Forms
- Modern Language Association (MLA) style
- American Psychological Association (APA) style
- Chicago style
Print Sources with Known Author
- Author's last name and page number within parentheses
- If two authors have the same last name, include the first initial
- Comes after the quotation
Print Sources with Unknown Author
PRINT:
WEBSITE &
Online Resources
Same as book/print
No distinction
author's last name, year of publication, page number and (potentially) chapter/paragraph number
MLA Format
Parenthetical Citations
E.g. "Sniff with your wisdom-nose" (Rumi 258).
- If author is already mentioned in sentence, only page number needed
Usually used in papers related to liberal arts and humanities
Print Sources by Corporate Author
- If by a corporate author, parentheses should include corporation name and page number
- Corporation name should be abbreviated if too long
E.g. "We are awesome" (Nat'l Post 447).
E.g. "He was like a giant broken and badly reassembled" ("Notre-Dame de Paris" 75).
- In parentheses, include title in quotations and page number
- If title is too long, it can be shortened
Print Sources with Multiple Authors
- Print source with 4 or more authors
- Within parentheses, include first author's last name followed by "et al."* and page number
E.g. "Mr. Bombier is awesome" (Tang et al. 65).
APA Format
Parenthetical Citations
Usually used used to cite sources within the social sciences
*Et al. is from the Latin word "et alia", meaning "and others"
Indirect Citations
- Citing a source within another source
- In parentheses, begin with "qtd in"* and name the author and page number of source visited
Chicago Format
Parenthetical Citations
No specific use - use when necessary/specified
- *qtd. in stands for "quoted in"
E.g. Donovan Kwong agrees that "people should die in glory" (qtd. in Saad 45).
(In-Text Citations)
- Author's last name and year of publication

- include page number and/or chapter, paragraph or section numbers IF NECESSARY

- use commas in between year of publication, pages, chapters, or paragraph numbers

e.g (Ogilvie 1998, 26-28) would be embedded into a sentence
Exceptions:
online resources without page number
put paragraph or chapter number instead
multiple authors:
include all names (unless more than four) - put et.al. after first author
no publication date - n.d (no detail)
How to do, "Quotation Setup."

Human beings have been described as
or
Judith Thurman believes romantic poetry is,
or
The following is said by Aamir Tahir:
1. Punctuation before Quotation Varies
2. Insert Quote
Human beings are described as "symbol-using animals."
*symbol-using animals* is quote

Judith Thurman believes good poetry is "where the ghosts of the word dwell."

*where the ghost of the word dwell* quote
3. Any Punctuation Ending Quote
punctuation inside quotations unless it is followed by parenthetical citation
If so, punctuation follows the parentheses

Human being are described as "symbol-using animals," ...

Judith Thurman believes good poetry is "where the ghosts of the word dwell."
PRACTICE:

Web/Electronic Sources
- No parentheses needed
- Include first item of citation in the Works Cited area into the text
- No page numbers needed
- Parenthetical citations if paragraph number included
- Must include Author's last name, date of publication and page number

Proper Form:
"The fox jumps over the fence" (Smith, 2012, p. 17).

Variation:
Smith (2012) believes that "the fox represents cunning and deceptiveness" (p. 17).
E.g. Karan Tibriwal has concluded that he "desperately needs a girlfriend" (par. 2).
A direct quote involves copying exact words or phrases from your source material
Print Sources with Known Author:
Direct Quote
- Must include Author's last name and date of publication

Proper Form:
The fox represents his cunning and deceptiveness (Smith, 2012).

Variation:
Smith (2012) believes that the fox represents cunning and deceptiveness.
paraphrasing involves summarizing someone else's ideas or thoughts into your own words
Print Sources with Known Author:
Paraphrasing
- Use "p." before page numbers
- Use "para." before paragraph numbers
Print Sources by Corporate Author
- substitute author with organization name
- if needed, the name can be mentioned in one citation and abbreviated in all others

First citation:
"The cow jumped over the moon" (World Health Organization, 2014).

other citations:
"The mouse ran up the clock" (WHO, 2015).

Print Sources with Multiple Authors
For 1-2 authors
- Cite all authors
( Smith & Johnson, 2012)

For 3-5 authors
- Cite all authors for the first citation
- then cite only the first + et al.
First citation: (Smith, Johnson, Baker, & Lee, 2012)
Next citations: (Smith et al., 2012)

For 5+ authors
- Cite only the first + et al.
(Smith et al., 2012)
Multiple Print Sources
- include citations for all sources used separated by semicolons
- arranged in same order as bibliography

"Jack fell down and broke his crown" (Roberts, 2000, p. 50; Smith, 2003, p. 83)

- if the authors share the same last include first initials

"Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall" (G. Carter, 2012, p.12; H. Carter, 2005, p. 8)
Print Sources with Unknown Author
- substitute the author's name with the title or atleast the first few words of the title
- if the author is sourced as "Anonymous", use Anonymous as the author (even in the bibliography)

- Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined
- Titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

Citing Unknown Dates

- substitute the date with "n.d."

n.d. = no date

n.d. = no date
Indirect Citations
- add primary source in the actual text
- cite the secondary source in parenthesis

"Johnson argued that the itsy bitsy spider survived the fall" (as cited in Rogers, 2004, p.12)
Different Types of Sources
- web sources, print sources, and other sources all adhere to the format of

(title, date, p.#)
Or...
If citation is not mentioned in text, include in parentheses author's last name, comma, title of article in quotations
E.g. The world is "falling into a sort of hell" (Tahir, "The Devil").
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