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EDB003 Assignment 1 - Presentation: Discrimination in Education

Mikayla Hiscock

on 19 July 2016

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In Education
Tayla Arthur, Fiona Bergstrum, Mikayla Hiscock, Cindy Jang, and Ashneeta Prasad
What Styles Of
Can You Think Of?
Let's Discuss
Let's Talk - BabaKiueria

Different Forms of Discrimination
Racial Discrimination Act 1975
Sex Discrimination Act 1984
Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986
Anti-discrimination Act 1991
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
Age Discrimination Act 2004
Laws and Discrimination Acts Currently in Effect
1901 - 1958 – Immigration Restriction Act
1967 – Victorian govt. introduced first ESL class.
1974 – committee on Teaching Migrant Languages in Schools
1979~1975: less focus on minority groups
1978: Galbally report & Committee on Multicultural Education by Commonwealth School Commission (CME)
1975~1983: Multicultural evolution (Jayasuriya)
1884~1995: Managerial Multiculturalism (Jayasuriya)
1986: Jupp Report – reviewed multicultural program
1996: finalised phases of multicultural evolution
4 key principles to underpin Australia’ multicultural policy

History of Australia’s Policies and Attitudes Towards Race and Education
Is there a way to ensure the classroom is a discrimination free environment in which all students have equal opportunities to learn?

Strategies for Teachers
Use knowledge and support from community representatives

Process writing

Value Indigenous students’ diverse cultural and linguistic heritages

Group/collaborative work
“Aboriginal children expect warm interpersonal relationships with adults and peers. Having such relationships is absolutely critical to their learning at school as it allows an Aboriginal child to trust enough tot take risks and ask for help.”
Department of Education (2010)

Contextualised learning for meaning making
Use visual cues wherever necessary to clarify and reinforce concepts

Focus on purposeful communicative activities which are comprehensible and appropriate to the learner’s age and needs

Support the learners’ language skills development through scaffolding the learners’ language

Explicitly teach new language (vocabulary, text types, grammar, sound knowledge, pronunciation, intonation) in the context of a theme or topic

Encourage the use of the learners’ first language if the learner is literate in that language

Focus on developing learners’ oral language skills for oral language development and to support writing

Integrate students’ own experiences in learning – value their languages and cultures

Understand students’ circumstances outside of the classroom

Use pair and group work to maximise language interaction in a low stress environment and to encourage risk taking

Jointly deconstruct and construct texts to model how texts work to achieve their purposes

Use themes and topics which are relevant to learners’ particular needs

Use clear, common and consistent instructions and repeat or rephrase if necessary

Sufficient explicit teaching, scaffolding and modelling of processes

Critical literacy is the ability to read texts in an active, reflective manner in order to better understand power, inequality, and injustice in human relationships. The development of critical literacy skills enables people to interpret messages in the modern world through a critical lens and challenge the power relations within those messages.”
- Coffey (2008)

Students need to recognise bias, including their own, in written and visual texts, consider different points of view and make judgements about how bias can lead to discrimination and inequality

Addressing students questions
Answer directly, don’t sidestep questions related to prejudice or differences
Don’t criticize mentions of social differences, explore them and their constructions
Reflect and provide feedback

Analysing Social Constructions And Changing Perceptions
- Swick & Leiderman (n.d.)

1. Model it
. Sometimes talking isn’t always enough, and your actions, both subtle and overt, are what students will replicate.

2. Acknowledge difference
. Emphasize some of the positive aspects of our differences – language diversity, culture, etc. and encourage children to talk about what makes them different. After that, finding similarities becomes even more powerful, creating a sense of common ground.

3. Challenge intolerance
. If bias or prejudice is indicated by a student, don't meet the action with silence. Find the root of the action or comment and explain why the action or comment was unacceptable.

4. Seize teachable moments.
School-age children respond better to lessons that involve real-life examples than to artificial or staged discussions about issues.

5. Emphasize the positive.
Remember, it is equally important to praise students’ behaviour that shows respect and empathy for others.

Principles To Remember With Children Ages 6-12
Maintain sensitive and effective communication skills
Use inclusive language – avoid bias and stereotypes
Foster negotiation skills to achieve fair outcomes when there are diverse points of view
Ensure students understand what is expected of them

Utilising resources that present different perspectives, authentic voices and adequate contextual knowledge
Topic-specific resources
Resources from the wider community
Student knowledge and background

Global understanding and respect for cultural diversity
Aspects of culture that are beyond the visible

A safe, supportive environment in which the teacher is a facilitator and students are equal
Keeping Discrimination And ‘Othering’ Out Of The Classroom
Ensure discrimination doesn’t occur in the classroom during teaching and learning

Remove the concept of ‘othering’ from the classroom

Use a critical literacy approach to provide students with the tools to analyse social constructions

Provide support for EAL/D and Indigenous learners
How Do We Combat Discrimination and These Associated Issues?
Direct and Indirect discrimination

Teaching about discrimination being ‘easy’ or too difficult

Addressed as a topic, rather than a concept or perception


Factors outside of the classroom

Knowledge and resources
Common Issues
“The only sustainable solution to effectively eliminate racial discrimination must be through education. More than ever before, teachers have the potential to be huge role models for their students…. Because of this impact on young lives, teachers and educators have a moral responsibility to educate students in a way that looks critically at racial discrimination and instead promotes dialogue, diversity, and understanding in the classroom” - Newbart (2013)

As outlined by Education Queensland (2005) in the Professional Standards for Teachers, to ‘construct inclusive and participatory learning experiences’, teachers must inform professional practice by knowledge and understanding of ‘cultural differences and identity’ and ‘the impact of discrimination and injustice on learning’.

Teacher’s Role
Discrimination and sexual harassment at work
teacher resource kit - 32 pages (includes teacher notes, fact sheets, student worksheets and answers)
student booklet - 8 pages (quick guide, may be printed in booklet format)
The Discrimination and sexual harassment at work resource has been developed for upper secondary students (years 10-12).
The Commission plans to develop additional resources for teachers and students at all levels.
Useful Teaching Resources
Telephone state-wide 1300 130 670 or TTY 1300 130 680
Brisbane Office
Level 17, 53 Albert Street.
Open: 9am to 5pm Monday to Friday
Telephone: 1300 130 670 (Toll Free)
TTY: 1300 130 680
Fax (07)3247 0960

Contact details for
The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex communities and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples
People with hearing or speech impairments
People who wish to speak to someone in a language other then English

Anti Discrimination Commission Queensland
Through positive classroom environments
Create an inclusive classroom, not an integrated one.
Create an environment that connects and is relevant to all students
Create a welcoming environment, allowing others to teach their perspectives, cultures and history
Through engagement with other staff and community members
Promote ongoing evaluation of institutional policies that may passively support negative outcomes for certain groups of students
Conduct workshops and support groups that acknowledge the experience of discrimination across many settings with some tailoring that might aid in promoting the value of diversity and cultural acceptance
How Can Teachers Help Fight Discrimination?
Through teaching styles
Develop pedagogical approaches that incorporate social justice in the classroom
Provide viable and fruitful settings for English language acquisition
Be aware of the deficit model
Think about how your values and assumptions affect your teaching process
Through student-teacher relationships
Let students know their rights and responsibilities
Provide the students with resources to investigate on their own
Keeping positive relationships with students, parents and the community
Foster important student attributes
How Can Teachers Help Fight Discrimination?

To increase resilience
To form open and trusting relationships
To prevent ignorance
If teachers are not ignorant they cannot accidentally discriminate
If students understand what discrimination is they cannot accidentally discriminate
If students understand others they might have less reason to discriminate

Why Address Discrimination?

This is a myth!
Top 25% of immigrants/refugees do better then the top 25% of Australians
Still some truth – lowest 25% of immigrants/refugees do worse than the lowest 25% of Australians
The younger the children are, the high chance they have a doing well in school

“Non-Anglo-Celtic Students don’t do as well as Anglo-Celtic Students”
Higher psychological distress
Suicidal ideation
Negative self-fulfilling prophecies
Higher drop-out rates
Educational disparities

Negative Impact of Discrimination on Students
ACT: ACT Human Rights Commission:
NSW: Anti-Discrimination Board of New South Wales:
NT: Northern Territory Anti-Discrimination Commission:
QLD: Anti Discrimination Commission Queensland:
SA: Equal Opportunity Commission:
TAS: Office of the Anti-Discrimination Commissioner:
VIC: Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission:
WA: Equal Opportunity Commission – Western Australia:
Where Can I Find More Information?
Useful Websites
Tait (2013)
Better example of an inclusive school (2011)
http://www.adcq.qld.gov.au/resources/guidelines/discrimination-in-education (2013)
http://www.adcq.qld.gov.au/resources/guidelines/discrimination-in-education (2013) [hyperlinks/phone numbers] (also used “au/contact-us” and “contact-us/Brisbane” and au/training” and “au/ resources/for-students-and-teachers/for-teachers”)
The Impact of Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Asian American and Latino College Students (2008)
NASP Position Statement: Racism, Prejudice and Discrimination (2012)

Coffey, H. (n.d.) Critical Literacy. Retrieved August 16, 2014, from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4437
Department of Education. (2010). Bringing Aboriginal Perspectives Into How You Teach. Retrieved August 13, 2014, from http://www.det.wa.edu.au/aboriginaleducation/apac/detcms/aboriginal-education/apac/teaching-aboriginal-students-docs/bringing-aboriginal-perspectives-into-how-you-teach.en
Education Queensland. (2005). Professional Standards for Teachers: Guidelines for Professional Practice. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://education.qld.gov.au/staff/development/pdfs/profstandards.pdf
Frigo, T. (1999). Resources and Teaching Strategies to support Aboriginal Children’s Numeracy Learning. Retrieved August 17, 2014, from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:xbUqEU4yHroJ:ab-ed.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/download.cfm%3FDownloadFile%3DFADA9050-F75C-B96D-634020A0D3CB1BD6+aborchildnum_litreview.pdf&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=au&client=safari
Global Education. (2012). Teaching Strategies | Global Education. Retrieved August 14, 2014, from http://www.globaleducation.edu.au/teaching-and-learning/teaching-strategies.html
Newbart, Z. (2013). Education Week: In Ending Racial Discrimination, Teachers Should Be Role Models. Retrieved on August 14, 2014, from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/12/11/14letter-3.h33.html
Social Pathology Network. (2014). Tips for Elementary School Teachers. Retrieved August 16, 2014, from http://www.understandingprejudice.org/teach/elemtips.htm
Swick, K. & Leiderman, R. (n.d.) Common Questions About Youth and Prejudice | Teaching Tolerance. Retrieved August 12, 2014, from http://www.tolerance.org/publication/common-questions-about-youth-and-prejudice

“We’re the Government, it’s our job to make decisions about what people want, and give it to them.”

We’re teachers, obviously we know what should be taught and how to teach it?
Strategies To Support The Learning Of EAL/D Students
For Teachers:
(US base but has good resources)

For Students:
Dr Clarke's Study - Revisited
Have A Guess...
I’m better than you, because I’m me.
Will go into further detail soon.

Decides who’s in and who’s out
Not just to do with race, ethnicity, culture, religion and nationality


Blaming an individual or group.
Individual against individual.
Individual against groups.
Groups against individual.


Is a standardized conception or image of a specific group of people or object.
Occurs without our awareness.

Is learned.
Causes discrimination.

Left Handed Video

Was the quiz fair?
Why/why not?

What should be done about it?

Reflect on Quiz

This is my nephew, Josh.

5 volunteers

Person to person discrimination.

The kids threatening to crush the left handed boy's hand.


Occurs with race, gender, culture, sex, marital status, race, lawful sexual activity, pregnancy and parental status.

Who knows they got the answers right?
Who’s positive they flunked?

How’d you go?

Question 1: What is ethnocentrism?
What example did I use?
Question 2: What is my nephew’s name?

Quiz time!

We are better than you for no reason, other than I’m a part of this group and you are not.



Sought to differentiate disparate social groupings.
Socially constructed.

Brief history of Australia's multicultural policy

20th century.
World war ll
Mid 1960’s – 1973.

Individuals that are unlike by other people due to different lifestyle.
Indigenous education in schooling

Case Study – Hickling-Hudson

White Australia policy

Uni-racial Australia.
End – world war ll.

“Standardised testing, such as NAPLAN and QCS, is a fair and just way of testing students’ intelligence and capabilities. It yields accurate results and the material students are tested upon is knowledge they all have.”

In small groups, you will take on the role of the described individual on the handed out cards, and respond to a statement

You will be given a few minutes to prepare an argument or response

Consider the factors that contribute to the role you have
How does their background influence their opinion?
Do they have a strong opinion? Why/why not?

Role Playing Activity

10 Little Fingers and 10 Little Toes

Resource: Literature

Providing support for EAL/D & Indigenous students
Strategies to support the learning of Indigenous students
Cultural Discrimination
Race VS Ethnicity
Discrimination within an institution
Institutions are:
Family, work, mass media, politics, government, sports, neighbourhoods.

The left handed boy had to write with his right hand and was reprimanded for messy writing
Biased criteria, such as, "exemplary English expression"
Institutional Discrimination
Individual Discrimination

Attitudes, practices and other factors.
Occurs when a person is denied the same rights and freedom as everyone due to their ethnicity.

Respond to the following statement:

Synonym for race.

Social factors:

Full transcript