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Anatomy & Physiology: Introduction

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james donahue

on 23 August 2018

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Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: Introduction


1. Protects deeper tissues from injury.

2. Synthesizes vitamin D.

3. Regulate body temperature.

4. Communication with the environment (via cutaneous nerves).

5. Excrete wastes.
1. Support the body mass.

2. Protect soft organs.

3. Movement.

4. Store minerals.

5. Hematopoiesis.
1. Move bones and maintain posture.

2. Circulate blood.

3. Propel substances.

4. Regulate blood pressure.

5. Vision and focus.

6. Stabilize joints.

7. Generate heat.
1. Sensation.

2. Integration.

3. Motor stimuli.
4. Form the blood brain barrier.

5. Phagocytosis.

6. Circulate Cerebral Spinal Fluid.

7. Create myelin.
Regulate metabolism via hormones.
Return leaked fluid back into the blood stream.
1. Pump blood.

2. Vasomotor action.
3. Transport blood gases.

4. Neutralize pathogens.

5. Hemostasis.
Exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.
1. Catabolize nutrients.

2. Absorption.

3. Defecation.
1. Regulate blood composition.

2. Regulate blood volume/pressure.

3. Regulate blood pH.

4. Regulate calcium (vitamin D).

5. Regulate RBC concentration.
1. Formation of gametes.

2. Nurture offspring.

3. Growth and development.
Body Planes
Frontal Plane
Sagittal Plane
Horizontal Plane
Divides the body into front and back
Divides the body into left and right
Divides the body into
top and bottom
Body Cavities
Directional Terms

Regional Terms
negative v. positive
Anatomical Variations
20.5-21.5% of S. African blacks have 3 heads of the bicep brachii
(2.5% have 4 heads)
17.2% of Indians do not possess a palmaris longus
All Human Population
8.5% have an extra muscle in their lower leg (plantaris)
10% of quadricep contusions generates new bone growth
4.5% have extra nipples
0.35% have an extra rib in their neck
0.2% have the appendix in the upper left quadrant
0.16% have a single "horseshoe" kidney
0.008% have the heart on the right
0.022% gender cannot be determined at birth
Extreme variations
are seldom seen

Be sure you can:

Find the cows...
Everything that has ever been done had never been done until someone did it.

Change "why didn't I think of that" to "why didn't I think like that."

If you want to find the cures, find the cows.

You only know what you don't know by going where you haven't been.
Every system is connected to every other system
Lungs, kidneys, bone
If the lung cannot get enough oxygen, the kidneys secrete a hormone (erythropoietin) that causes the bones to make more red blood cells.
Blood vessels, kidneys, adrenal glands, brain
If blood pressure is too low, the kidneys release an enzyme (renin) that causes blood vessels to constrict, the adrenal glands produce a hormone (aldosterone) that retains salt, and the pituitary gland produces a hormone (antidiuretic hormone) to retain water.
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