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Transcript of Hinduism
Prepare for rest of life
Respect and learn from elders
Learn about Hinduism
What is Hinduism?
When it comes to the deities, Hinduism is incredibly complicated.
The Five Duties
Cows are Sacred
Hindus practice a complex, non-restricting belief system based on tolerance and respect.
Not a single founder
Originated in India
Influenced by Iranians, Pakistani city and Southern Indian culture
"This is the sum of the duty; do not do to others what would cause pain if done to you."
Diwali; the Festival of Lights
originated from the Hindu epic
most well known 5 day Hindu Festival
occurs mid-autumn during final harvest
also celebrated by Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs
symbolizes the victory of righteousness and lifting of spiritual darkness
celebrate bountiful final crop and seeks the divine blessing of Lakshmi
Popular Activities Include:
decorating houses, gift giving,
fireworks, diya ceremonies, melas, and washing in fragrant oils
Festival of Spring, Love and Colours
(late February/early March)
and the legend of
"Holika and Prahalad"
"victory of forces of divinity over demonic forces"
all distinctions of caste, class, age and gender are disregarded
dancing, singing and throwing of
bonfires are lit in communities
humorous gender rivalry contests
hereditary degree of ritual purity/pollution
Honours the Elephant God Ganesha
10 day Hindu festival
most popular in the state of Maharashtra
Pandals are set up in public and homes where the god is worshiped and decorated with flowers and jewels
on the eleventh day the statue is paraded through the streets and then submerged in water
this symbolizes the birth and decomposition of nature
the common religion of India, based upon the religion of the original Aryan settlers as expounded and evolved in the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, etc., having an extremely diversified character with many schools of philosophy and theology, many popular cults, and a large pantheon symbolizing the many attributes of a single god. Buddhism and Jainism are outside the Hindu tradition but are regarded as related religions.
Technically, Hinduism is both a polytheistic, monotheistic and monistic religion
They believe in a single being, known as Brahman
However, they also believe in manifestations of Brahman, the Hindu gods
Some more well known gods are Vishnu, Kali and Shiva
There is nothing noble about being superior to some other man. The true nobility is being superior to your previous self. -Hindu Proverb
Worship is often done alone
Names of Gods and Goddesses are repeated aloud along with prayers
Gifts are offered to the Gods
Worship is done at a shrine in the home, with family members
Hindus believe in worshiping without imposing on other's beliefs
Based on respect and tolerance
The three greatest manifestations of Brahman are the Hindu Trinity. (shown across)
Hindu Role of God
Each has a consort.
Brahma = Saraswati
Vishnu = Lakshmi
Shiva = Parvati
Each god has many different forms. Vishnu alone has nine incarnations (ex. Rama, Krishna).
Can be described as polytheistic or monotheistic
There are many spirits, but are different forms of the same being
Brahman is true
No particular form, can be viewed in many different ways
Everyone has a personal relationship
No evil being against God
Parvati can take on the forms of Durga and Kali.
One example is the story of Krishna and Radhe, incarnations of Vishnu and Lakshmi respectively.
Souls are eternal and cannot be created or destroyed
Universe moves through cycles
Three worlds of existence: physical, astral, causual
Maya - physical world which is artificial and ever changing
Samsara - never ending cycle of life and death
Soul moves onto new body after death
Moksha - liberation from the cycle of reincarnation to be reunited with Brahman
Moksha is received once you resolve all karmas
Karma - accumulation of good and bad karma influence placement in next birth
Their pairing was the divine representation of love despite the two never marrying.
A way of living that all Hindus should strive for
Code of moral and righteous duty
Necessary for individual, family, society
Santana dharma - applies to all people of all religions, nationalities, ages, sexes, professions
Varneshrama dharma - based on specific members of society with respect to age, sex, and status
There is evidence throughout Hindu mythology of the three pairs finding each other throughout their different incarnations.
They were one in the mind and soul, meaning that there could never be one without the other.
The Four Stages of Life
Brahmacharya, The celibate student
The First Ahsrama
The Second Ahsrama
Begins at marriage
Have children, provide for family
Care for older family members
Artha - pursuit of wealth
Kama - love and sexuality
Most Hindus stay in this stage forever
The Third Ahsrama
Vanaprastha, Forest Dweller
Begins when you become visibly older and your children have grown up
Retire and give household duties to wife or son
Reject all physical and material pleasures
Engage in a religious pilgrimage
The Fourth Ashrama
Give up all possessions, desires, fears, hopes duties, and responsibilities
Live a life of prayer completely devoted to God
More About The Four Stages of Life...
The fourth stage is rarely achieved
Today, most Hindus don't reach the third stage
The role of women is more to guide men through the process
Stages have existed since around 5th century BCE
Seen as more of a guideline than direct rules for Hindus
Four Goals of Life
Dharma - living life with compassion, forbearance, absence of jealousy, purity, tranquility, goodness, absence of cruelty, and absence of greed
Artha - earning money and power in an honest, hard-working way
Kama - pursuit of love and physical pleasures
Moksha - leading life towards salvation
- Sruti or "heard" Hindu scriptures are considered divinely inspired and fully authoritative.
- Documented between 1200 BCE and 100 CE
- The Sruti texts are the Vedas, which are comprised of the Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.
- Smruti or "remembered" scriptures help to explain the Sruti scriptures in lamen terms.
- They are the most recent scriptures, revered as the true representation of Hindu beliefs and practices.
- Smruti texts include Itihasas, Puranas, Dharma Shastras, Agamas and Tantras, and Darshanas.
Itihasas and Puranas
Dharma Shastras and Agamas Tantras
*Hands in Prayer
-Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India,
-He immersed himself in sacred Hindu spiritual texts and adopted a life of simplicity, austerity and celibacy that was free of material goods.
-Advocated for the civil rights of Indians
-Gandhi became a leader of India’s independence movement, organizing peaceful forms of civil disobedience.
-He was killed in 1948.
Hindu Sacred Text