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Comparison between Finland, Pakistan & Spain Education
Transcript of Comparison between Finland, Pakistan & Spain Education
& Montse Finland Spain Pakistan Early childhood education Primary schools Secondary schools Higher education School system in
Spain Education is compulsory from the age of 6 to 16. It's "free of charge" Kindergartens are not compulsory and are not free of charge either. There are 2 periods, one from 0 to 3 years old and another from 3 to 5 years old. School starts at 9:00 and finishes whether after lunch 13-14:00 or before 17:00 (with lunch break 12:30 - 15:30. There are only some schools providing warm food for lunch, but you always have to pay for it. Special education Typical features or differences between the systems There are state universities throughout Spain that provide a degree,
professional qualifications and post degree education. Confusingly some
universities are called polytechnic universities which can indicate that they are partial
towards the sciences. School starts at 8:30 and lasts till 14:30. Some of the high schools provide food for lunch, but you always have to pay for it. However, this is not always the case and there is no difference in the respective status of either a polytechnic university or university.
Currently, the Spanish system is being harmonized with the rest of Europe. This is
likely to result in a system similar to that of the UK with three- to four-year-degrees and
2-year-Master’s qualifications. Two different kinds of Vocational trainings Grado Medio Grado superior This lasts two years and provides a basic level of training. This lasts a further two years and can only be started when a student is 18 years old. If a student passes his "Grado Superior" he obtains access to
the university system. Bachillerato Is a two-year non-compulsory education level, which complements Compulsory Secondary Education. The Secondary Education Certificate is a prerequisite for entering Baccalaureate. The theoretical ages for commencement and completion are 16 and 18, respectively They are provided by the high schools are intended to provide practical
training for a working skill (plumbing, electrical work, hairdressing etc).
They last four years and result are universally recognized across Spain. From primary school onwards, children experiencing learning difficulties may be able to get special assistance, either from specialist teachers in the school or specialists outside of the school, though not all schools are adapted to help children who need assistance. If a pupil has been assessed and been found to be in need of assistance:
Child and parent sent to a Center for Special Needs.
Child undergoes a variety of tests with a doctor and a social worker to determine the child's level of need.
The professionals evaluate the child and discuss results with the parent. If a child has learning deficiencies of 33% or + then he/she is classified disabled.
A grant will be given for treatment (including speech therapy, physiotherapy and other specialist assistance), help in school or placement in a special-needs school if the child's mainstream school is unable to provide the education required. Vocational training Bachelor Master Doctorate Schools
Like most countries, there is a wide range of schools in Spain. State early childhood schools: 3.843
Semi-private early childhood schools: 1.247
Private early childhood schools: 2.513
Primary state schools: 9.789
Semi-private primary schools: 411
Private primary schools: 72
Secondary state schools: 3.940
Semi-private secondary schools: 393
Private secondary schools: 325
State universities: 713
Private universities: 233 TOTAL: 22.614 schools Spain Pakistan Finland Public
Private Public Pakistan Finland Spain Almost 100% of students have access to Education. Almost 35% of students don´t have access to education. Students enrollment in schools Public schools: 3.032.797 (67%)
Private schools: 1.508.943 (33%) TOTAL: 4.541.740 Special needs Schools
Technical & Vocational
Universities Public Private 194,151 (72%) Pakistan Institutions Students Spain Finland 76.674 (28%) 26.630.000 (66%) Constitution guarantees free basic education to children from age of 5-16, however, only in Feb 2013, government drafted a law to ensure this constitutional right. Public vs. Private Sector in Education State cannot provide adequate resources for education
Private sector fills the gap from primary to university level and generally provide better quality of services
Two types of private sector institutions: Commercial (running schools on business model and classified as mediocre and elite)
Charities (including NGO, religious schools) Three Parallel Curriculum Systems National Curriculum (most of the schools follow this)
British Model leading to International General Certificate of Secondary Education (elite private schools follow this, few also follow IB program)
Madrassa (religious schools, follow traditional 12th century curriculum with few adaptations)
Population Literacy Rate (Literacy defined as: aged 10 and over and can read and write his name and some basic information)
Literacy rate: 60% of total population (2009 est.)
Educational system in Pakistan Pre-Primary 1 3 Primary Secondary 2 Higher secondary 4 University 5 University 6 -Only private schools provide pre-primary schooling for ages 3-5.
-More and more parents choosing it. -Grade 1-5
-Subjects: English, Urdu, regional language, math, science, social studies, religious studies, arts, physical education (only elite schools offers music) -Grade 6-10
-Same subjects as primary, at grade 9, student can choose science, commerce or arts tracks
-Secondary School Certificate (SSC) exams in grade 9 and 10
-Elite schools follow British curriculum leading to International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE). Few schools also follow IB program. -1-3 years programs offered after SSC
-Provincial Technical Board take exams and award certificate/diploma
Technical & Vocational Institutions -Grade 11-12
-Based on student’s chosen science, commerce or arts tracks (commerce and arts tracks cannot choose to study science at this point)
-2 year bachelors studies -135 universities (76 public, 59 private)
-3 or 4 yr. bachelors, 1 or 2 yr. masters programs
-2 yr. MPhil or 4 yr. PhD programs
-Only 0.5% people are in university education
-Very few special needs school exist , mostly operated by charities
-Often these schools are located in big cities
13.960.000 (34%) 872,300 (58%) 634,800 (42%) 967 (30%) 2257 (70%) 76 (56%) 59 (44%) Always 100% % of the Government Spending Basic right to education and culture guaranteed by the Constitution.
Objective of basic education: to support pupils’ growth towards humanity and ethically responsible membership of society and to provide them with the knowledge and skills needed in life.
The education should promote learning and equality in society as well as acquiring knowledge and skills that the students need in studying and developing themselves
Finnish educational system Pre-Prymary Basic comprehensive education Upper secondary general education Higher education:
free of charge Upper secondary vocational education The Matriculation examination Its purpose is to discover whether students have assimilated the knowledge and skills required by the curriculum for the upper secondary school and whether they have reached an adequate level of maturity in line with that school’s goals. Passing the Matriculation Examination entitles the candidate to continue his or her studies at university. The examination consists of at least four tests; one of them, the test in the candidate’s mother tongue (compulsory for all candidates). The candidate then chooses three other tests: second national language, a foreign language, the mathematics, and one test in the general studies battery of tests (sciences and humanities). Adult education General adult education comprises general upper secondary schools for adults and liberal adult education.
Upper secondary schools for adults are either separate institutions or adult education units operating linked to institutions providing education for young people.
Liberal adult education provides adults with opportunities to develop themselves without qualification. There are courses on offer in subjects relating to citizenship skills and society and in different crafts and subjects on a recreational basis. - Formal – informal – non formal
– Free or State subsidized
– Provided by some 800 institutions in Finland
– Approx. 1,7 million participants annually
The Finnish higher education system consists of two complementary sectors: polytechnics and universities:
16 Universities The mission of universities is to conduct scientific research and provide instruction and postgraduate education based on it.
1 economics and business adm.
3 art academies
168 200 students (2012)
27 Polytechnics Polytechnic education is professionally oriented higher education. Polytechnics train professionals in response to labour market needs and conduct R&D which supports instruction and promotes regional development.
13 run by private organisations
147 700 students (2012)
Master’s degree in both sectors are also free of charge and they last for 1,5-2 years. - (min. 15 years old)
– gives access to universities and
– Usually 3 year programmes (20 c redits, approx.
6 months training)
– mostly run by municipalities
– 39.5% by private organisations (with 20%
– 176 200 students (2012)
– 124 centres (2012) - (16-19 years old)
– Free of charge (only pay for the materials)
– Matriculation exam after 3 or 4 years: general qualifications
– Mostly run by local authorities
— 118 000 students (2012)
— 381 schools (2012) - (9 years, from 7 to 16 year old): compulsory, free of charge (textbooks, teaching materials, meals, health care and transport if > 5 km).
– 539,500 students (2012)
– 2 789 active schools in 2012
– Additional voluntary education (10th grade) In case basic education completers feel that their skills are not quite up to the standard required by further education
–Educational Support and Student Wellbeing: Early identification of learning difficulties and sufficient support are cornerstones of education
Special needs education:
- 1st alternative: inclusion in mainstream classes, when necessary, in small
teaching groups (part-time)
- 2nd alternative: transfer to a special group, class or school
o 110 special education schools
o 5,600 pupils
6 years old, Participation in pre-primary education is voluntary but the municipality is obliged to provide pre-primary education, free of charge.
–59,600 children, of whom 12,200 were in pre-primary education in schools and 47,400 in day care (2012)