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The Reconstruction

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Rick Dursi

on 21 December 2015

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Transcript of The Reconstruction

1868
1871
1877
1865
1874
The Reconstruction
The 13th Amendment
Freedmen's Bureau abolished.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
September 5 1872
The New York Sun charges that Vice President Schuyler Colfax, vice-presidential nominee Henry Wilson, James Garfield, and other prominent politicians are involved in the operations of the Crédit Mobilier, a corporation established by the promoters of the Union Pacific railroad to siphon off the profits of transcontinental railroad construction. Ultimately, two congressmen will be censured for their part in the swindle and many other politicians will be damaged in reputation.
What should be done with all the former slaves?

How can we Protect their “new” rights?

How should the South be rebuilt?


How should they be admitted back into the union?
The
10%
Plan

President Lincoln’s Plan (1864)

Senator
Benjamin
Wade (R-OH)

Congressman
Henry W. Davis

Wade-Davis
Bill (1864)

Ex-Slave’s Friend
the only guardian of civil rights the former slaves could turn to.
Relief Services
Health Care
Land Redistribution
Labor Relations
Judicial Functions
Educational Efforts

Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)

Establishment of Black Colleges in the South

Southern view of the Freedmen’s Bureau

14th Amendment (1867)

Andrew Johnson
EFFECTS?

President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)

January 1866

Alexander Stevens elected senator

-legislation passed by Southern states after the Civil War in an attempt to control African Americans
The Black Codes consisted of:
Prohibiting blacks from either renting land or borrowing money to buy land
Forcing free blacks into a form of semi-bondage by making them sign work contracts
Prohibiting blacks to testify against whites in court

Purpose:
Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated.
Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations.
Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].

Sharecropping

Military Reconstruction Act
Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.
Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.

Reconstruction Acts of 1867

Impeachment!!!!!!!!!

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

15th Amendment -
February 3, 1870

Black & White Political Participation

1868 Presidential Election

President Ulysses S. Grant

Whiskey Ring.
The “Indian Ring.”
Credit Mobilier Scandal.
Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and
corruption.
Reconstruction and Corruption

The KKK is formed 1866

“The Lost Cause.”
The rise of the “Bourbons.”
Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs).

Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act].

The Failure of Federal Enforcement

No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!
The Civil Rights Act of 1875

1876 Presidential Election

“Corrupt Bargain” Part II?

The Political Crisis of 1877

A Political Crisis: The “Compromise” of 1877

End of Reconstruction

Issues
1867
1866
3rd Dist.
Maryland
Lincoln Assassinated
April 14, 1865
Civil War Ends
April 9, 1865
10% Plus Plan
Pardoned planter
aristocrats
brought them back to political power to control state organizations.

Disenfranchised
certain
leading
Confederates.

Republicans were
outraged that
planter elite were back in
power in the South!

1. Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath
2. No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials
and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000
3. A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted
4. A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before
being readmitted in December and refused to seat the
Southern representatives.
5. Most of the seceded states began compliance with the
president’s program. Congress was not in session, so there
was no immediate objection from that quarter.

Why do you think people had issues with him being from Tennessee?
Why would this cause problems for the Northern Congressmen?
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/cornerstone-speech/
EXAMPLES OF THE BLACK CODES IN THE SOUTH
1. Opelousas, Louisiana; "no negro or freedmen shall be allowed to come within the limits of the town of Opelousas without special permission from his employers. . . . Whoever shall violate this provision shall suffer imprisonment and two days work on the public streets, or pay a fine of five dollars." Any Negro found on the streets of the town after ten o'clock in the evening had to work for five days on the public streets or pay a $5 fine.
The ordinance further provided:
* "No negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . .
* No negro or freedman shall reside within the limits of the town . . . who is not in the regular service of some white person or former owner. . . .
*No public meetings or congregations of negroes or freedmen shall be allowed
within the limits of the town. . . .
* No negro or freedman shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise
declaim to congregations of colored people without a special permission
from the mayor or president of the board of police.. ..
*No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons....
*No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise within
the limits of Opelousas without permission in writing from his employer        
* In Alabama -it was the duty of all "Civil officers" of a county to report "the
names of all minors whose parents have not the means, or who refuse to
support said minors." They might be treated in the same way, arrested, fined,
and then sentenced to work off their fines. In bidding for the services of "said
minor . . . the former owner . . . shall have preference."

2. Florida No "negro, mulatto, or person of color" was allowed in Florida and most other Southern states to "keep any bowie-knife, dirk, sword, firearms, or ammunition" without a license. A black owning any weapon "of any kind" had to surrender his arm or arms to the informer, "stand in the pillory ... for one hour, and then [be] whipped with thirty-nine lashes on the bare back." The same penalty might be invoked for "any person of color . . . who shall intrude himself into any religious or other public assembly of white persons or into any railroad-car or other vehicle set apart for the accommodation of white persons."

3. In addition, poll taxes were imposed in every state, ranging in amount from Georgia's $1 per head on every man between the ages of twenty-one and sixty to $2 in Alabama on every person between the ages of eighteen and fifty, and to $3 in Florida. A black man could not buy or rent land except in a city. South Carolina required that a black man pay an exorbitant fee to engage in trade or open a store. Nor, in that state, could he serve on juries. Unemployment was treated as a crime, and the unemployed could be sentenced to work without pay.
Black Codes
Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop.
Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest.
Merchant holds “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as repayment of debt.

Plants crop, harvests in autumn.
Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent.
Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt.


Rents land to tenant in exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmers future crop.
Merchant
Tenant Farmer
Land Owner
"Be it enacted, That all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, publicThe Civil Rights Act of 1875 was rarely enforced and was eventually overturned by a Supreme Court decision in 1883. conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude.
Tennessee is the first state to replace a bi-racial Republican state government with an all-white Democratic government, followed by Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia in 1870.
1869
1870
1872
1873
1875
1876
First black senator elected.
Hiram Revels of Mississippi elected to U. S. Senate as the first black senator.
Forty-second Congress.
Five black members in the House of Representatives: Benjamin S. Turner of Alabama; Josiah T. Walls of Florida; and Robert Brown Elliot, Joseph H. Rainey and Robert Carlos DeLarge of South Carolina.

* May 1-3 Memphis Race Riot
White civilians and police kill 46 African Americans and destroy 90 houses, schools, and four churches in Memphis, Tennessee.
* July 30 New Orleans Race Riot
Police kill more than 40 black and white Republicans and wound more than 150.
1866
Race Riots
The First Redeemer Government
The "Era of Good Stealings"
President Ulysses S. Grant is often considered a political failure because of his limited successes during Reconstruction and his inability to stem the post-war government scandals. This mediocre record as president is very different than his sterling reputation as the commander of the victorious Union army in the Civil War.
From Al Kaltman, Cigars, Whiskey, and Winning.]


Democrats win control of both houses of Congress for the first time since before the Civil War. Redeemer governments win control in Arkansas and Alabama.


The Whisky Ring scandal is exposed; a group of public officials and liquor distillers have defrauded the federal government of millions by bribing liquor tax collectors. Orville E. Babcock, Grant's private secretary, was involved in the scandal and only acquitted through the personal intervention of the president.

The Whisky Ring May 10th 1875



Black Friday on the New York gold exchange. Financiers Jay Gould and Jim Fisk attempt to corner the available gold supply, and try unsuccessfully to involve President Grant in the illegal plan.

Black Friday September 24 1869
May 22, 1872 General Amnesty Act
Robert E. Lee wasn't granted forgiveness
Confederates had to swear allegiance to the Union
10% of the 1860 voters swore allegiance to the Union
Panic of 1873
Led to the Crime of 1873
Financial panic and depression follow the failure of the Philadelphia investment house owned by Jay Cooke, who had helped finance the Union war effort by selling federal bonds to farmers and workers. Of the country's 364 railroads, 89 will go bankrupt. Some 18,000 businesses will fail in the next two years.
Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall 1863-1872
Tammany Hall--New York City's Democratic political machine
"Tweed Ring," which openly bought votes, encouraged judicial corruption, extracted millions from city contracts, and dominated New York City politics.
Carpetbaggers
Scalawags
northerners who came south to help the reconstruction
southerners who helped the federal governments reconstruction efforts
Thomas Nast & Harpers Weekly
The Failure of Reconstruction. (2014). The History Channel website. Retrieved 4:30, January 5, 2014, from http://www.history.comhttp://www.history.com/videos/the-failure-of-reconstruction.
http://www.history.com/topics/compromise-of-1877/videos#the-failure-of-reconstruction
Full transcript