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The Reconstruction

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Rick Dursi

on 20 December 2017

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Transcript of The Reconstruction

The Reconstruction
The 13th Amendment
Freedmen's Bureau abolished.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
September 5 1872
The New York Sun charges that Vice President Schuyler Colfax, vice-presidential nominee Henry Wilson, James Garfield, and other prominent politicians are involved in the operations of the Crédit Mobilier, a corporation established by the promoters of the Union Pacific railroad to siphon off the profits of transcontinental railroad construction. Ultimately, two congressmen will be censured for their part in the swindle and many other politicians will be damaged in reputation.
What should be done with all the former slaves?

How can we Protect their “new” rights?

How should the South be rebuilt?

How should they be admitted back into the union?

President Lincoln’s Plan (1864)

Wade (R-OH)

Henry W. Davis

Bill (1864)

Ex-Slave’s Friend
the only guardian of civil rights the former slaves could turn to.
Relief Services
Health Care
Land Redistribution
Labor Relations
Judicial Functions
Educational Efforts

Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)

Establishment of Black Colleges in the South

Southern view of the Freedmen’s Bureau

14th Amendment (1867)

Andrew Johnson

President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)

January 1866

Alexander Stevens elected senator

-legislation passed by Southern states after the Civil War in an attempt to control African Americans
The Black Codes consisted of:
Prohibiting blacks from either renting land or borrowing money to buy land
Forcing free blacks into a form of semi-bondage by making them sign work contracts
Prohibiting blacks to testify against whites in court

Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated.
Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations.
Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].


Military Reconstruction Act
Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.
Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.

Reconstruction Acts of 1867


The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

15th Amendment -
February 3, 1870

Black & White Political Participation

1868 Presidential Election

President Ulysses S. Grant

Whiskey Ring.
The “Indian Ring.”
Credit Mobilier Scandal.
Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and
Reconstruction and Corruption

The KKK is formed 1866

“The Lost Cause.”
The rise of the “Bourbons.”
Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs).

Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act].

The Failure of Federal Enforcement

No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!
The Civil Rights Act of 1875

1876 Presidential Election

“Corrupt Bargain” Part II?

The Political Crisis of 1877

A Political Crisis: The “Compromise” of 1877

End of Reconstruction

3rd Dist.
Lincoln Assassinated
April 14, 1865
Civil War Ends
April 9, 1865
10% Plus Plan
Pardoned planter
brought them back to political power to control state organizations.


Republicans were
outraged that
planter elite were back in
power in the South!

1. Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath
2. No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials
and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000
3. A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted
4. A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before
being readmitted in December and refused to seat the
Southern representatives.
5. Most of the seceded states began compliance with the
president’s program. Congress was not in session, so there
was no immediate objection from that quarter.

Why do you think people had issues with him being from Tennessee?
Why would this cause problems for the Northern Congressmen?
1. Opelousas, Louisiana; "no negro or freedmen shall be allowed to come within the limits of the town of Opelousas without special permission from his employers. . . . Whoever shall violate this provision shall suffer imprisonment and two days work on the public streets, or pay a fine of five dollars." Any Negro found on the streets of the town after ten o'clock in the evening had to work for five days on the public streets or pay a $5 fine.
The ordinance further provided:
* "No negro or freedman shall be permitted to rent or keep a house within the limits of the town under any circumstances. . . .
* No negro or freedman shall reside within the limits of the town . . . who is not in the regular service of some white person or former owner. . . .
*No public meetings or congregations of negroes or freedmen shall be allowed
within the limits of the town. . . .
* No negro or freedman shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise
declaim to congregations of colored people without a special permission
from the mayor or president of the board of police.. ..
*No freedman ... shall be allowed to carry firearms, or any kind of weapons....
*No freedman shall sell, barter, or exchange any article of merchandise within
the limits of Opelousas without permission in writing from his employer        
* In Alabama -it was the duty of all "Civil officers" of a county to report "the
names of all minors whose parents have not the means, or who refuse to
support said minors." They might be treated in the same way, arrested, fined,
and then sentenced to work off their fines. In bidding for the services of "said
minor . . . the former owner . . . shall have preference."

2. Florida No "negro, mulatto, or person of color" was allowed in Florida and most other Southern states to "keep any bowie-knife, dirk, sword, firearms, or ammunition" without a license. A black owning any weapon "of any kind" had to surrender his arm or arms to the informer, "stand in the pillory ... for one hour, and then [be] whipped with thirty-nine lashes on the bare back." The same penalty might be invoked for "any person of color . . . who shall intrude himself into any religious or other public assembly of white persons or into any railroad-car or other vehicle set apart for the accommodation of white persons."

3. In addition, poll taxes were imposed in every state, ranging in amount from Georgia's $1 per head on every man between the ages of twenty-one and sixty to $2 in Alabama on every person between the ages of eighteen and fifty, and to $3 in Florida. A black man could not buy or rent land except in a city. South Carolina required that a black man pay an exorbitant fee to engage in trade or open a store. Nor, in that state, could he serve on juries. Unemployment was treated as a crime, and the unemployed could be sentenced to work without pay.
Black Codes
Loan tools and seed up to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop.
Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest.
Merchant holds “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as repayment of debt.

Plants crop, harvests in autumn.
Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent.
Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt.

Rents land to tenant in exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmers future crop.
Tenant Farmer
Land Owner
"Be it enacted, That all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, publicThe Civil Rights Act of 1875 was rarely enforced and was eventually overturned by a Supreme Court decision in 1883. conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude.
Tennessee is the first state to replace a bi-racial Republican state government with an all-white Democratic government, followed by Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia in 1870.
First black senator elected.
Hiram Revels of Mississippi elected to U. S. Senate as the first black senator.
Forty-second Congress.
Five black members in the House of Representatives: Benjamin S. Turner of Alabama; Josiah T. Walls of Florida; and Robert Brown Elliot, Joseph H. Rainey and Robert Carlos DeLarge of South Carolina.

* May 1-3 Memphis Race Riot
White civilians and police kill 46 African Americans and destroy 90 houses, schools, and four churches in Memphis, Tennessee.
* July 30 New Orleans Race Riot
Police kill more than 40 black and white Republicans and wound more than 150.
Race Riots
The First Redeemer Government
The "Era of Good Stealings"
President Ulysses S. Grant is often considered a political failure because of his limited successes during Reconstruction and his inability to stem the post-war government scandals. This mediocre record as president is very different than his sterling reputation as the commander of the victorious Union army in the Civil War.
From Al Kaltman, Cigars, Whiskey, and Winning.]

Democrats win control of both houses of Congress for the first time since before the Civil War. Redeemer governments win control in Arkansas and Alabama.

The Whisky Ring scandal is exposed; a group of public officials and liquor distillers have defrauded the federal government of millions by bribing liquor tax collectors. Orville E. Babcock, Grant's private secretary, was involved in the scandal and only acquitted through the personal intervention of the president.

The Whisky Ring May 10th 1875

Black Friday on the New York gold exchange. Financiers Jay Gould and Jim Fisk attempt to corner the available gold supply, and try unsuccessfully to involve President Grant in the illegal plan.

Black Friday September 24 1869
May 22, 1872 General Amnesty Act
Robert E. Lee wasn't granted forgiveness
Confederates had to swear allegiance to the Union
10% of the 1860 voters swore allegiance to the Union
Panic of 1873
Led to the Crime of 1873
Financial panic and depression follow the failure of the Philadelphia investment house owned by Jay Cooke, who had helped finance the Union war effort by selling federal bonds to farmers and workers. Of the country's 364 railroads, 89 will go bankrupt. Some 18,000 businesses will fail in the next two years.
Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall 1863-1872
Tammany Hall--New York City's Democratic political machine
"Tweed Ring," which openly bought votes, encouraged judicial corruption, extracted millions from city contracts, and dominated New York City politics.
northerners who came south to help the reconstruction
southerners who helped the federal governments reconstruction efforts
Thomas Nast & Harpers Weekly
The Failure of Reconstruction. (2014). The History Channel website. Retrieved 4:30, January 5, 2014, from http://www.history.comhttp://www.history.com/videos/the-failure-of-reconstruction.
Fact 7: The committee uncovered evidence of widespread corruption in which it became clear that William Belknap had accepted bribes from companies with licenses to trade on the reservations of many Native American Indian tribes.
Fact 5: Political corruption was rife and a House of Representatives’ committee started to investigate the activities of the U.S. Secretary of War and his luxurious lifestyle
Fact 6: On February 29, 1876, Congress launched an extensive investigation run by Hiester Clymer
Fact 4: He was known for his extravagant lifestyle and giving expensive parties. People wondered how he could afford the luxuries on his $8000 a year salary
Fact 3: He had held his cabinet post for nearly eight years from October 25, 1869 – March 2, 1876 before the scandal erupted
Fact 2: He had been appointed Internal Revenue tax collector in Iowa by President Johnson after the Civil War and remained in this position until President Ulysses Grant appointed him to head the War Department in 1869.
Fact 1: William Worth Belknap was a lawyer and a friend of Grant. He had served as Major General in the American Civil War
Belknap Bribery Scandal
Indian Ring Scandal
Fact 8: Belknap had been given sole authority to appoint Indian post-traderships by Congress
Fact 9: He abused the power of his position and accepted illicit kickbacks or bribes in exchange for making lucrative Indian tradership appointments
Fact 10: The corruption had started in 1870 when he (and his first and then second wife) took quarterly payments for the Fort Sill "tradership" position awarded to Caleb Marsh and a sutler called John Evans. Caleb Marsh gave kickbacks to the Belknaps totally of $20,000.

Fact 11: Fort Sill, in Oklahoma Indian Territory, afforded a highly lucrative military contract. Belknap went on to empower the traderships even further by giving them a virtual monopoly over trade.
Fact 12: Sutlers, men who sold provisions to the soldiers, were appointed to operate in the Military and Indian traderships
Fact 13: The US Soldiers stationed at forts operated by Belknap appointed sutlers could only buy supplies through the authorized tradership. This monopoly enabled the sutlers to charge highly inflated prices for the necessary supplies
Fact 14: The sutlers also made even more profits from Native American Indians by selling rifles as well as basic supplies.
Fact 15: Rumors of the corruption led to a political scandal. The leader of the investigating Committee, Hiester Clymer, was a staunch Democrat who vehemently opposed Republican Reconstruction of the Grant administration
Fact 16: Caleb Marsh gave evidence that Belknap had accepted payments in return for trading partnerships between himself and the sutler John Evans.
Fact 17: In light of the evidence stacked against his Secretary of War, President Grant asked for his resignation, which was given
Fact 18: Despite his resignation from the cabinet the Committee started impeachment proceedings.
Fact 19: As he resigned before the Impeachment trial (as would Nixon in later years) he was acquitted on the grounds that the Senate lacked jurisdiction after his resignation had been accepted. No civil charges were made against him.
Fact 20: He returned to his former job as a lawyer and left the political arena. His actions creating the Indian Ring had undermined and damaged the reputation of the president.
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