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Transcript of Human Rights
International Relations Multilateral Mechanisms The Non-governmental Politics of Human Rights My Conclusions Historical Repetition of PD games regarding the sovereignty, territory, and borders
A Criticism about Better life index 3.0 created by OECD
Should 'universal human rights' be discriminated and distinguished by the existence of 'nationality'? Periodic state reports
country specific and thematic 'special procedures'
The aggregate enforcement is trivial
almost nothing directly to victims
constructive conversation to improve HR of particular violating states
Sometimes countries accept norms due to the presumption of compliance, not by the cost-benefit analysis Bilateral Human Rights Policy
US put much emphasis on human rights, and other liberal western friends like Netherlands followed
essential element of national foreign policy tools
capability and options to bring significant changes
Human rights make conflicts with national interests like ideology, geopolitics, and economy
USA provided massive military and political support to El Salvador and Guatemala that were butchering their own populations.
US sanction against the Tiananmen Massacre Amnesty International's Argument
Human Rights Know no borders
Governments are using the excuse of 'internal affairs' to block concerted resolutions of human rights
Lack both the power of states and the diplomatic processes of IOs.
Energy of interested individuals
Check and Balance
Trickle-down Effect Various IR Theories on Human Rights Since Westphalia International order is still robust, states prefer to obtain Relative Gains by Joseph Grieco even in terms of HR issues where human dignity is proposed.
However, it is so humiliating for human being not to mention Human Rights as human 'dignity' in our international politics.
As the most recent Jasmine revolution, there exist 'individual' who tried to reshape the environment of HR combined with the abundant flow of HR information in the Internet(Technology).
Just as Jurgen Harbermas proposed in his theories of communicative behaviors, the fundamental condition to improving HR is to exchange abundant resources information of Human right as the 'global citizens' not the 'global consumers' and to broaden our horizons of the current HR circumstances with other individuals.
This heightening awareness of HR can eventually create the normative structure of HR spill-over and reshape influences foreign policy, which will be more favorable to HR improvement.
Westphalia International Order & Human Rights The Evolution of International Human Rights Norms How the Global Human Rights Regime Evolved The Charter of the United Nations 1948 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Human Rights Council 2006 2009 1945 Signed in San Francisco
Identified respect for Human Rights as ' One of the Principal Objectives of the New Organization
Created a Commission on Human Rights as the Global Human Rights Regime Culminated in the UN General Assembly on 10 December
Became our current global agenda Was created to continue the role of a Commission on Human Rights Ratification and Scope Six major treaties were ratified by 171 states, 87% average ratification rate
The Universal Declaration and the International Human Rights Covenants Bilateral Mechanisms of Human Rights Liberalism Social Constructivism Critical Perspectives Based on Liberal natural rights, liberals have strongly supported human rights as the best mechanism for providing a life of autonomy, equality, and dignity for all citizens.
Enlarging the scopes of the human rights into the economic and social rights, the Universal Declaration presents the model for the liberal democratic welfare states Realism natural interest defined in terms of power
mere moral and 'add-on' human rights became one of foreign policy tools.
Depending upon the hierarchy of foreign policy objectives, the importance of human rights varied. International society has been modestly reshaped, sovereignty and human rights have come to co-constitute one another
The national interests are socially constructed
Due to the possibilities of the reshaping, making a world where active citizens making lives of dignity is possible. Covenants of Human rights are mostly valued by western economic and political power
Is it 'voluntary' demand?