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Kansas History: Chapter 4
Transcript of Kansas History: Chapter 4
The Saga of Bleeding Kansas The issue of slavery threatened to tear the nation apart. All eyes were on Kansas. Kansas Territory-settlers were given the right to decide whether or not to allow slavery At times violence erupted over slavery issues Territory became known as “Bleeding Kansas” Issues in Kansas played a role in the Civil War Agricultural south relied heavily on slave labor About Slavery Enslavement of Africans began with the early colonists Indentured servant- a person who is bonded or contracted to work for another for a specified time Africans and poor whites worked as laborers for food and housing Earned their freedom after 5-7 years Laborers would have to be replaced Idea of slavery became more appealing to the colonists All 13 colonies permitted slavery for a time 1800’s- many northern states had outlawed slavery Still existed in primarily southern states Included land that would become Kansas The Missouri Compromise U.S. struggled with whether to allow slavery into the territories or not 1820- U.S. grew from 13 to 22 states 11 states were free, 11 were slave Missouri Compromise: Maine entered the U.S. as a free state Missouri entered as a slave state Both maintained balance of voting power in the U.S. Congress Banned slavery in the lands of the Louisiana Purchase North of 36, 30˚ Compromise of 1850 Southern states not happy with banning slavery in territories Compromise of 1850: California admitted into the Union as a free state Fugitive Slave Act was adopted Fugitive slaves were denied the right of a jury trial All citizens were required to assist in the recovery of runaway slaves Kansas-Nebraska Act Indian tribes let their reservations in Kansas for new lands in Oklahoma Stephen A. Douglass (Ill.)- Helped get the Compromise of 1850 through Congress, played a major role in the development of the Kansas-Nebraska Act Expansionist- The practice or policy of territorial or economic expansion Anxious to organize the Louisiana Territory Proposed using popular sovereignty to settle the territories Popular Sovereignty- the concept that political and legislative power resides within the citizens People who lived within the territories were given the right to decide on the issue of slavery Kansas-Nebraska Act- repealed the Missouri Compromise, opened the two new territories up for settlement Repeal- to revoke Slavery opponents also opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, feared the spread of slavery into new territories Those who opposed the act later formed the Republican Party Lincoln- Douglass’ opponent Indian Removal from Kansas Founded Lawrence, Topeka Settling the Territory Settling Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act opened up land for settlement Popular sovereignty drew people from both sides of the slavery issue to the territory Some assumed Nebraska would end up a free state, Kansas a slave state For or Against? Proslavery- supportive of the practice of slavery Antislavery- Opposed to the practice of slavery Abolitionists- A person who wanted to bring about the immediate end of slavery Not all people against slavery were abolitionists Some were simply free-staters- A settler who believed Kansas should not allow slavery Most settlers of the Kansas Territory came from Missouri Proslavery leaders from Missouri urged their people to settle Kansas to discourage the presence of a free state on the Missouri border Founded Atchison Antislavery settlers took control of Leavenworth Most came for cheap land and economic opportunities Counting the People of the Territory Andrew H. Reeder- First Territorial Governor, ordered the first census of Kansas Territory in 1860 Counted 107,209 people 51% emigrated from northern states 37% from the south Why Did They Come? Pro-slavery Voices Many southerners felt passionately that slavery should be extended into Kansas Territory Why allow slavery? Offered needed economic opportunities, would continue a way of life Envisioned a new territory where southern farmers could prosper If slavery were banned in Kansas Territory, ti would threaten slavery in other parts of the country Their way of life was in jeopardy Anti-Slavery Voices Many people came to Kansas to fight against slavery Some thought slavery was morally wrong Some believed it gave slaveholders an unfair advantage Dred Scott Slave who sued the government for his freedom Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott and all African Americans were not citizens of the U.S. Whether free or not No difference if living in a free or slave state Unconstitutional for the U.S. government to prohibit slavery in the territories Unconstitutional- not in accord with the principles set forth in the constitution of a nation or state Included Kansas Territory Emigrant Aid Societies Antislavery advocates flocked to Kansas Territory as individuals and as groups New England Emigrant Aid Company Received financial, moral support from New England abolitionists Placed ads in newspapers to attract potential settlers to Kansas Territory Settlers directed to available land Not provided with money or work Aid helped out by raising money to construct public buildings Invested in newspapers to spread word about free-state cause Slavery in Kansas Territory Slavery existed in Kansas Territory, on a much smaller scale than the South Underground Railroad part of Kansas Territory Network of safe houses that helped slaves escape No way to know how many escaping slaves came through Kansas Success depended on secrecy Acts of War The fight over slavery in Kansas eventually erupted in violence. National attention was focused on the violent confrontations, giving rise to the name "Bleeding Kansas" Wakarusa War Began with killing of a free-stater Proslavery supporters arrest man attending free-state meeting Citizens of Lawrence prepared for attack Under siege for a week Siege- the surrounding and blockading of a city or town by an army attempting to capture it Pro-slavery force blocked supplies from reaching Lawrence Residents manage to get supplies through Major attack on Lawrence never came Media interest was intense and exaggerated Outspoken residents of Lawrence continued to annoy pro-slavery supporters Sheriff Samuel Jones, Southern sympathizer, entered town with a group of armed men Burnt down two newspaper offices, destroyed businesses, two people killed Horror of the attack on Lawrence made national news The Pottawatomie Massacre John Brown- well-known abolitionist, willing to use violence to end slavery immediately Assaulted pro-slavery settlers near Pottawatomie Creek, Franklin County Killed 5 pro-slavery men Marias des Cygnes Massacre 11 free supporters kidnapped by pro-slavery men Five killed, five wounded, one escapee National attention on the massacres increased tensions across the country Violence eventually declined Name Calling Border Ruffians Missouri settlers who crossed into Kansas to influence the outcome of the slavery issue in Kansas Bushwhackers Missouri settlers who raided anti-slavery settlements in Kansas Jayhawkers A free soil or Unionist guerrilla in Kansas who clashed with pro-slavery groups in Missouri during the border disputes Election Fraud Andrew Reeder- first governor of Kansas Territory Believed in popular sovereignty Called for first election Border ruffians crossed over to participate Over half the votes- illegal John W. Whitfield elected to U.S. Congress Pro-slavery supporter Election results challenged; still allowed to serve Missourians cross border again in for spring elections Legislative election named "Bogus Legislature" The First Territorial Legislature Met in Pawnee Governor Reeder picked location Meet far away from influence of Missouri Reeder was an investor in the city Placing capital in Pawnee brought people to city Major Goals: Determine a permanent seat of government Create a constitution Decide if Kansas was to be free or slave Actions of the First Legislature Major Actions: Kicked out all anti-slavery members Angered the free-staters Moved government to Shawnee Mission near Missouri border Passed slave code- punishable offense to speak out against slavery in Kansas Anti-slavery residents so angered they set up their own government Governor Reeder removed from office Charged with treason, moving capital for personal benefit Escapes territory in disguise The territorial government had to write a constitution before Kansas could become a state; the issue of slavery left little room for compromise The Topeka Constitution Topeka movement formed in reaction to election fraud that created "Bogus Legislature" Two separate governments operating in Kansas Territory One free-state, one pro-slavery Free-state delegates met in Topeka to write constitution that prohibited slavery Only white males, "civilized male indians" allowed to vote Constitution anti-slavery, but not for the rights of black people Clause later added made it illegal for African Americans to live in Kansas Approved by a large majority of voters Pro-slavery voters refused to vote Affected it chance of being accepted Eventually sent to Congress Denied by Congress, sent back defeated The Lecompton Constitution Pro-slavery Bogus Legislature called for constitutional convention of their own Constitution protected slave owners Angered anti-slavery residents, refused to vote The Leavenworth Constitution Free-state delegates wrote third constitution in Leavenworth Anti-slavery, gave all men voting rights, restrained women's rights Passed, taken to Congress, failed to gain enough support there The Wyandotte Constitution and Statehood Fourth and final constitutional convention held in Wyandotte Made Kansas a free state Restricted most voting rights, service in the militia to white men Made some improvements to women's rights Easily approved in Kansas Territory Did not gain Congressional approval immediately Not admitted to the Union until southern states began seceding prior to Civil War Enough votes for statehood once balance of power shifted in the Senate Everyday Life Settlers built houses, established schools and businesses Raised crops, tended livestock to provide food Hardships: Housing often not of great quality Doctor, dentists sometimes hard to find Weather often brutal The Pony Express Ran for 18 months between Missouri and California Young men rode about 33 miles, changed horses every 10-15 miles Entire route was 2,000 miles Cost- $5, expensive Mail picked up, delivered twice a week Almost 200 stations, employed 80 riders Transcontinental telegraph line was being developed Transcontinental- spanning or crossing a continent End of territorial period, some people in Kansas connected to all parts of the country through wire Expense, new technology brought an end to Pony Express