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Who Are You? Personality Development

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Angel Jowers

on 26 October 2018

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Transcript of Who Are You? Personality Development

Psychodynamic Theories of Personality Development
Psychosexual Stages
Five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of a child
Freud believed that one could get stuck in one of the five stages. You will physically become an adult but carry emotional and psychological baggage from a previous stage.
1. Oral stage:
first stage of personality development
Focus on weaning child from breastfeeding to independently eating
Weaning too late or too early can result in an orally fixated adult that overeats, drinks too much, nail biting, overly aggressive, overly dependent
2. Anal stage:
Conflict over toilet training and issues of control and power
demand that children use the toilet at a particular time and particular way
A child that refuses or is unable to make it to the toilet=sees messiness as a statement of personal control and can be hostile
A child that insists on "holding it" can be stingy, stubborn and excessively neat
3. Phallic Stage:
the child discovers sexual feelings
children have discovered the difference between the sexes
"Oedipus complex":
child develops sexual attraction to their opposite-sex parent and jealously of the same-sex parent
A little boy is fearful that is dad might get angry so represses his sexual feelings for his mother and identifies with his father to become "just like daddy"
Fixated adult can have a heavy reliance on masturbation, be a huge flirt, or express extreme modesty and be scared of sex
4. Latency stage:
the sexual feelings of a child are repressed while the child develops in other ways
children grow intellectually, physically and socially
Usually boys with other boys and girls play with other girls
5. Genital Stage:
sexual feelings once repressed can no longer be ignored, but this time, they are redirected towards others and not a parent
starts with immature love
this stage lasts from puberty to death
Karen Horney's Sociocultural Approach
Anatomy is NOT destiny

Penis envy is not because women want to be men but because they want to be treated like men. Both sexes envy the attributes of the other.

Security drives human existence not sex

Carl Jung's Analytical Theory
1. What is your birth order? (oldest, youngest, middle, only child)

2. Do you think your birth order has impacted your personality? How?

3. Does your birth order affect how you are treated by your family?

4. What type of personality does ...
a. The oldest child have
b. The middle child have
c. The youngest child have
d. The only child have
Social Cognitive Approach
These approaches emphasize conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals
Behaviorist Perspective:
For the behaviorist, the personality is a set of learned responses that have become automatic.
How a behaviorist would explain personality
A shy child...
exposed to a parent with a harsh discipline style. Avoiding the attention of the parent would result in less punishment
Later in life, the child might avoid figures of authority (teachers)
*Remember in psychology, you can not apply the general explanation of behavior to every single person
Creating a character with specific personality:
Bandura and Reciprocal Determinism
environment, personal characteristics and behavior can interact to determine future behavior
*Example: Richard enters a classroom filled with other students but no teacher is present
. Richard's
personal characteristics
include the desire to gain attention from other people by talking loudly and telling jokes. His
will most likely be to talk loudly and tell jokes and will continue if he gets a positive reaction from his classmates.
Come up with an example of reciprocal determinism.
Anthony goes to the barn. It's a Thursday night. Anthony has been picked on because he is not a drinker.




Actualizing Tendency
self actualization
- think back to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. What does "self-actualization" mean?
Real Self VS. Ideal Self
Real Self:
one's perception of actual characteristics, traits and attitudes
Ideal Self:
one's perception of whom one should be or would like to be
Ideal Self
-comes from important people in someone's lives
When a person's view of self is impossible to attain, problems arise
Conditional Positive Regard
warmth, affection, love and respect that come from significant others in one's life (Parents, friends, teachers)
unconditional - warmth, respect and affection without any conditions attached

conditional-positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish
Unconditional/Conditional Love Example
Sasha and Karen are college freshman. Sasha is considering becoming a math teacher. Karen is planning on becoming a doctor. Sasha's parents are supportive no matter what career path she chooses to go down. Karen's parents have told her that they will only be happy with her is she becomes a doctor.
What are some examples of conditional and unconditional love?
Receiving unconditional love affects your personality because....
Receiving conditional love affects your personality because...
shy, talkative, quiet, loud, motivated, lazy, confident

1. Write a story called "How ____________ came to be"
2. Choose a personality descriptor to insert into the blank. Imagine a character with that personality and write a SHORT story as a group
3. Start writing for 2 minutes about the
where the character develops the trait.
4. PASS your paper to the right: the next person will write about the
character's motivations
that would lead to such a personality trait. (2 minutes)
5. Pass your papers again, the next person will describe the
reaction or result of the behavior and its consequences
. (2 minutes)
6. Pass your papers one more time.
Describe how the story ends, the lesson the character learned, and how that character embodied that trait.

*Get in groups of 4 (your only will only need 1 piece of paper)
Harmony and Anxiety
1. Draw a Venn Diagram
2. Left Side-perception of the your real self
3. Right Side-perception of your ideal self
4. The middle represents self-actualization-What does self-actualization look like for you?
Behaviorist Perspective
Humanistic perspective
Trait Theories of Personality
Trait: a consistent way of thinking, feeling or behaving
Surface Trait: aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person
Source Trait- traits that form the core of a person
Shy, quiet, disliking crowds
What are some of your personality traits?
Five Factor Model of Personality
5 trait dimensions that make up the human personality
1. Openness: willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences

2. Conscientiousness: the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others (dependability)

3. Extraversion- dimension of personality referring to one's need to be with other people (extraverts vs. introverts)

4. Agreeableness: range of traits from easygoing and friendly to crabby and unpleasant

5. Neuroticism- degree of emotional stability or instability

1. You've been planning it for weeks, secured the hotel rooms, made restaurant reservations, had the car's oil changed and have a tank full of gas -- and you've mapped out rest stops along the way.

2. You've been rushing all morning trying to get things together, eventually throwing snacks and clothes haphazardly into your bags at the last minute. If you're the one driving, you hope you can find a gas station and fill up your half-empty tank on the road.

3. Family trip? Sounds like fun! You're just along for the ride with no pre-planned contributions except your entertaining funny stories and jokes. You enjoy the snacks your older siblings have packed in the car, and you realize you might need to buy a weather-appropriate coat when you arrive to your destination.
You are planning a trip with your family. Which of these best fits your personality?
The Middle Child: The Peacemaker

If you are a middle child, you are probably understanding, cooperative and flexible, yet competitive. You are concerned with fairness. In fact, as a middle child, you are likely to pick an intimate circle of friends to represent your extended family. It has been said that middle children receive the least amount of attention from their families
What motivates you?
1. In school?
2. In sports?
3. At your job?

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:
a person must meet several levels of needs before he or she can reach full potential
Create your own hierarchy of needs:
1. Start at the top-
What is your ultimate goal?
(this could be a dream job, a dream life, a dream college experience etc.)

2. Work your way down the hierarchy filling in what types of needs have to be met in order to reach your ultimate goal.
Personality - a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
Structures of the personality
Defense Mechanisms - tactics the EGO uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Collective unconscious - shared by all human beings; deja vu; common experiences made a deep impression on the mind

Archetypes - emotionally laden images and ideas rich with symbolic meaning for all people; predispositions to respond to the world in a particular way

Animus - assertive masculine side
Anima - passive feminine side
Persona - mask we wear in public

Personality is like an iceberg
Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology
Motivation is purpose and goals
Perfection is prime motivation
People strive for superiority and do so by adapting, improving and mastering our environments
Compensation - trying to overcome or cover up imagined or real inferiorities and weaknesses

People can take their genetic make-up and their worldly experiences and shape themselves creatively into who they want to be
Humanistic Approach to Personality Development
Carl Rogers
Humans are basically good - we are born with unlimited potential and can all have a fulfilling life with the right conditions
We are also born with a need to receive positive regard from others.
We are unhappy when we don't receive unconditional positive regard.

In your teams, discuss examples of:
Unconditional positive regard
Conditions of worth
Optimal Functioning
Receipt of unconditional positive regard
Receipt of empathy
Being genuine
Variables to understanding personality according to Bandura:

Observational Learning - learning by watching
Personal Control - internal or external locus of control
Self-Efficacy - competence to accomplish a goal/task
Mischel's CAPS (Cognitive Affective Processing Systems) Theory
Your thoughts and emotions about yourself and the world affect your behavior and become linked in ways that matter to that behavior.

Focus is on how personality works, not what it is.

What behavior or traits are exhibited depends...
Personality is not constant or consistent.
to join the poll.

Type in
of the OCEAN traits that best describe your personality trait.
What is your dominant trait??
Personality and Behavioral Genetics
Personality is formed by genetics and biology.

The study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics (Behavioral Genetics)

Genetic factors explain a lot of the observed differences in each of the big five traits - twin studies are used most often
Personality and the Brain
Eysenck's Reticular Activation System Theory
Extraversion and introversion explained by arousal levels - extraverts under-aroused in the morning below optimal level; introverts are above optimal level of arousal so we regulate behavior to bring levels up or down
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
BIS - punishment leads to behavior to avoid punishment which leads to negative emotions leading to neuroticism trait

BAS - reward leads to behavior to seek rewards which leads to positive emotions leading to extraversion

We all have a life story (experiences) that make us who we are. It is constantly changing that helps give us a sense of coherence. Life stories are our identities.
What do you think makes us who we are?

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