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Transcript of Utopian societies
By Crissy and Elijah Utopian Societies The Roots of Utopian Societies Types of Utopian Societies There are many different types of utopian societies. These differ because peoples ideas of a perfect community differ. Types of utopian societies include ecological, economical, political, religious, and scientific utopias. Past Utopian Societies Many people wanted to bring Utopian societies to life. They created what they thought was a perfect community. These are some that have failed. An interview with George Rapp Interviewer: Hello Mr. Rapp. When and where were you born?
George Rapp: I was born on November 1, 1757, in Iptingen, Wurttemberg, Germany.
Interviewer: Why did you emigrate to the United States?
George Rapp: I emigrated to the U.S. in 1803 to escape persecution. I was a Harmonist, so I was seen as a threat to the mainly Lutheran Germany. Many Harmonist were forced to serve in the military. I was imprisoned for two days for preaching my beliefs. This was the straw that broke the camel's back. We Harmonist decided to go to America, where we were free to practice any religion we wished. Present Day Utopian Societies There is no true present day utopian societies because there are no societies which there is a perfect and harmonious system at all times. Every single society is flawed in some way or fashion. There are still some attempts at utopian societies. People like Hitler, Thomas Moore Vladimir Lenin, and Mao Zedong. Political Cartoons Plato's "The Republic and The Laws" began the
ideas of the utopian society. In "The Republic" he
tells of things he does not like in the world. He uses
analogies from Greek mythology to help support his
arguments. In his society citizens were separated into defined classes. "The Law" gives realistic details for the society he wanted to be created. "Utopia" By Sir Thomas More Sir Thomas More wrote "Utopia" in 1515. The book incorporated things he didn't like about Europe. These included kings starting wars for little or no reason, the execution of robbers, the removal of witnesses for trials, and the enclosing of common land which lead to the starvation of many people. It stirred up the interest in utopian societies. The first book told of the problems and the second book solved it. "Dialogue of Counsel" The first book was called "Dialogue of Counsel". It included an analogy that was great voyages of discovery and discovery of the mind. Plato's "The Republic and The Laws" where the basis of the models of good citizen and state in his book. The society was communistic democratic. In it More tried to convince Raphael to advise monarchs, but he knew he would not be listened to due to his radical views. Raphael was a traveler. "Discourse of Utopia" The second book, "Discourse of Utopia", took place in the new world. Raphael spent five years on the island, Utopia. The island was originally a peninsula, but a 15 mile wide channel was dug to separate it from the mainland. It had 54 cities, each divided into four equal sections. people asked for what they needed and got it. Everyone was peaceful. The Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening begun on May 7, 1801, when a Protestant revival was held in Cane Ridge, Kentucky. It took place in northern New England, western New York, and the Appalachian region in Tennessee and Kentucky. It encouraged the middle class to have a strong work ethic, temperance, and not to be wasteful. It told of the ability to be able to remove injustice and suffering. I t helped to create religious and educational infrastructure in the west and to begin the temperance, women's right, and abolitionism reforms. During these period many utopias were created. It ended in the 1840's. This political cartoon shows
for utopian societies to be
"perfect" there must be many laws and restrictions. This political cartoon shows how easily and quickly a utopian society can turn to chaos and become dystopian. The Old Economy Village lasted from 1824 to 1906. It was created by the Harmony Society. New Harmony was established by the Harmony Society in 1814. The religious leader of the Harmony Society, George Rapp, moved the followers to Pennsylvania. He sold the town to Welsh reformers, Robert Owen and William Maclure. Citizens studied science and natural philosophies. The town failed in 1829 due to money disputes. Brook Farm lasted from 1841 to 1846. It was founded by George Ripley and his wife Sophia Ripley in West Roxbury, Massachusetts. Workers could do any job they wanted to on the farm, and everyone received the same pay. There were many arguments between the workers. The farm became bankrupt after a fire burnt down a building. It then ended. The North American Phalanx, located in Colts Neck Township, New Jersey, lasted from 1844 to 1854. The 120 to 150 citizens believed humans were more prosperous working together than working separately. It ended because of two fires and the inability to agree on woman rights. The Oneida Community believed that they could free the world from sin and suffering. It was founded by John Noyes in 1848. In 1881 it dissolved because of natural disasters and American police trying to arrest Noyes for practicing polygamy. Octagon City was established in 1856 with all the citizens being vegetarians. It failed in 1857 because the settlers couldn't grow enough food to live. Home, Washington lasted from 1895 to 1919. It was created to give a home to people who wanted to escape higher authorities. It dissolved because it filled with anarchist. Ecological utopias don't damage nature. Its thought that these begun today's green moment. Jack Vance's book, "Rumfuddle", creates an ecological utopia with a twist. Economical utopias equal distribute goods. Citizens choose a job they want to do. They try their hardest because they want to help the greater good. Brook farm, a utopia you will learn more about later, is an example of an economical utopia. In political utopias everyone lives in peace and harmony. "Utopia", by Sir Thomas More, is an example of a political utopia. Religious utopias come in two types. In one there is no superstitious beliefs and everything is based off science. In the other all religions merge to worship one thing, supernatural or scientific. An example of a religious utopia is Heaven because it is a place free from sin, pain, death, and poverty. Technology causes citizens living in scientific utopias to have a high standard of life. Life expectancy is long and there is little to no illness, pain, and poverty. "Matched", by Allie Condie, presents an attempted scientific utopia that turned dystopian. This image shows the advanced technology in scientific utopias. Arden, Deleware is a utopian society found in 1900. Citizens say they are "close-knit, nature-loving, liberal, tolerant, free-spirited, artistic, intellectual, even ex-hippie." Land can't be sold, it is leased for 99 years. People live in tents or cottages. Popular activities there are going to fairs, participating in pageants, celebrating Arden holidays, and watching or acting in Shakespeare's plays. There were 474 residents in 2000. This is a typical house in Arden. This is one of the many places Shakespeare's plays are preformed in Arden. Freeland, Washington was founded by four former members of the Equality Colony in the 1900s. The founders said the land was free for all people, thus the name Freeland. Land is commonly share here. Popular places to go in Freeland are Double Bluff Beach Access and Double Bluff State Park. There were 1,313 residents in 2000. East Wind, Missouri was founded in 1974 and is based off of Dr. B. F. Skinner's 1948 study on how society could be designed to eliminate many problems. Everyone lives in dorms which have a common room were they can watch television. They sell hammocks and organic nut butters. About 60 people live there in comfort and harmony. This is a dorm in construction for East Wind residents. This is an East Wind resident constructing a hammock. This is East Wind's organic nut butter. Interviewer: What is a Harmonist?
George Rapp: A Harmonist is someone who belongs to the Harmony Society. We believe Jesus Christ is coming to the earth to form peace on earth for a thousand years. We believe making ourselves pure and perfect will make this come about sooner.
Interviewer: Tell me about your first settlement.
George Rapp: Our first settlement was Harmony, Pennsylvania. We found cheap land without many settlers around. We bought 4,500 acres in 1804, and 4,500 more acres in 1814. We were making a good profit each year, but the climate was bad for growing grapes and land prices were becoming higher. We decided to move to a land with better climate. Interviewer: Where did you go and why?
George Rapp: We went to New Harmony, Indiana in 1814. I choose the location because it was a good place to grow grapes and the land was cheap.
Interviewer: How was your time there?
George Rapp: During the summer and fall of 1814 work at our town nearly stopped because so many Harmonist had malaria. We drained nearby swamps to improve the conditions. By 1819 we had a steam powered wool spinning factory, a brewery, a distillery, and a winery. Sadly, not everything wasn't perfect. Not all of our neighbors liked us and it was hard to get goods to market. So we packed our bags and moved back to Pennsylvania.
Interviewer: Why did the settlement in Economy, Pennsylvania fail?
George Rapp: After I died the settlement became near bankrupt. The land was sold.
Interviewer: Are you disappointed the Harmony Society no longer exist?
George Rapp: Of course I am! I spent my whole life making it prosper and it just fell apart when I died.
Interviewer: When did you die?
George Rapp: I died on August 7, 1847 in Economy, Pennsylvania. Sources http://www.bchistory.org/beavercounty/BeaverCountyTopical/HarmonySociety/HarmonistsgeogrphyM1976.html