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Ozone Layer Deplation

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ahmad komaiha

on 2 October 2014

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Transcript of Ozone Layer Deplation

[Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://thejointblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/nasa.jpg (15)
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Ozone Layer Depletion
What is Ozone Layer Depletion???
Where Did Ozone layer depletion occur ???
What causes Ozone layer depletion???
How does this affect the environment ???
The ozone layer depletion is caused by human made pollutions. For example air pollution, water pollution.
The ozone layer depletion happened in Antarctica. If human activities keep polluting the ozone, of the whole earth will deplete. That will cause disease and death. The ozone depletion causes skin cancer.

The ozone depletion is also caused by CFC's, oil and petrol engines, deforestation, green house gases and fossil fuel
What has been DONE to help rectify this situation ???
What is the ozone ???
The ozone layer is a concentration of ozone molecules in the stratosphere. About 90% of the planet's ozone is in the ozone layer. The layer of the Earth's atmosphere that surrounds us is called the troposphere. The stratosphere, the next higher layer, extends about 10-50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. Stratospheric ozone is a naturally-occurring gas that filters the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. A diminished ozone layer allows more radiation to reach the Earth's surface. For people, overexposure to UV rays can lead to skin cancer, cataracts, and weakened immune systems. Increased UV can also lead to reduced crop yield and disruptions in the marine food chain. UV also has other harmful effects. (1)
The Natural Resources Defense council (NRDC) created in treaty in which they ordered companies to reduces the use of CFC's in their products since this compound is one of the main causes of ozone depletion. Also, the Montreal Protocol was created and signed in 1987.(1)

In addition to adjusting the Protocol, the Parties to the Montreal Protocol have amended the Protocol to enable, among other things, the control of new chemicals and the creation of a financial mechanism to enable developing countries to comply. (1)
differs from normal oxygen (O2) in having three atoms in its molecule (O3). (1)
Damage of the ozone shield by chemicals released on Earth. The main chemicals that are depleting stratospheric ozone are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are used in refrigerators, aerosols, and as cleaners in many industries, and halons which are used in fire extinguishers. The damage is caused when these chemicals release highly reactive forms of chlorine and bromine.
A thin layer of ozone in the stratosphere protects life on earth by screening out dangerous ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. The ozone layer has been badly damaged by elevated levels of chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere due to man-made CFCs and other ozone-destroying chemicals. As a result, humans are at higher risk of skin cancer, cataracts, and immunological illnesses; animals and plants on land and in the ocean are also endangered.

Ozone is a gas that occurs both in the Earth's upper atmosphere and at ground level. Ozone can be "good" or "bad" for your health and the environment, depending on its location in the atmosphere.
What is The difference between ground level ozone and ozone layer ???
How does the ozone help us
Ozone blocks harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun, protecting life on earth. The rays are absorbed by the ozone molecules causing them to break apart. They are highly reactive, they quickly bond with other oxygen molecules which will once again form an ozone molecule. The process is repeated. Therefore, ultraviolet rays are absorbed by ozone and less reaches earth.
Effect on human
Effect on plants
Physiological and developmental processes of plants are affected by UVB radiation, even by the amount of UVB in present-day sunlight. Despite mechanisms to reduce or repair these effects and a limited ability to adapt to increased levels of UVB, plant growth can be directly affected by UVB radiation.(2)

Indirect changes caused by UVB (such as changes in plant form, how nutrients are distributed within the plant, timing of developmental phases and secondary metabolism) may be equally, or sometimes more, important than damaging effects of UVB. These changes can have important implications for plant competitive balance, herbivory, plant diseases, and biogeochemical cycles.(2)
Laboratory and epidemiological studies demonstrate that UVB causes melanoma skin cancer and plays a major role in malignant melanoma development. (2)

Where can you find CFCs?
Chlorofluorocarbons can be found in..

Aerosols Perfumes

Air conditioners Refrigerators
How ozone depletion connected to climate change?

Ozone depletion does not contribute to global warming. Because ozone in the upper atmosphere absorbs heat radiating from below, stratospheric ozone depletion actually allows additional heat to escape into space. While this occurs worldwide, the depth of the springtime ozone hole over Antarctica results in Antarctica cooling while the rest of the Earth warms. Greenhouse gases tend to cool the upper region of the atmosphere, where the ozone layer is located. Because the chemical reactions that cause ozone depletion happen more quickly in the presence of ice crystals, a colder upper atmosphere with more ice will probably cause the ozone hole to expand slightly.
Will the ozone layer recover? Can we make more ozone to fill in the hole?
Provided that we stop producing ozone-depleting substances, ozone will be created through natural processes that should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050. It is very important that the world comply with the Montreal Protocol; delays in ending production could result in additional damage and prolong the ozone layer's recovery. More detail on these questions is provided here. (1)
In 1978, the use of CFC propellants in spray cans was banned in the U.S. In the 1980s, the Antarctic "ozone hole" Exit EPA Disclaimer appeared and an international science assessment more strongly linked the release of CFC's and ozone depletion. It became evident that a stronger worldwide response was needed. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol was signed and the signatory nations committed themselves to a reduction in the use of CFC's and other ozone-depleting substances. (1)

Since that time, the treaty has been amended multiple times to accelerate the phaseout of CFCs, HCFCs, and other ozone depleting substances. Today, over 190 countries have ratified the treaty. For over a decade the production of CFC's has been banned, with limited exceptions for essential uses. The next step in the elimination of ozone depleting substances occurs in 2010 when EPA will ban the production of the most harmful CFC's. This production phaseout is possible because of efforts to ensure that there are substitute chemicals and technologies for the compounds being phased out. (1)
Public reaction of Ozone depletion
Brief questions and answers on ozone depletion. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/q_a.html (1)

What does ozone layer depletion have to do with climate change?. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov/climatechangeFAQ (3)
Health and environmental effects of ozone layer depletion. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/spdpublc/science/effects/index.html (2)
What are some creative solutions to help this issue ?
what you can do is reduce your use of CFC items. Use lavender oil for sent instead of perfume, and use sugar and water. don't use car to travel little, try biking, walking. Limit your self to perfumes.. Use fans instead of air condition.
Fun facts.
There are two holes in the earth's ozone. 1chlorine can destroy 100,000 ozone molecule (O3). Venus doesn't have an ozone layer.
Reference Image
The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ea/NASA_and_NOAA_Announce_Ozone_Hole_is_a_Double_Record_Breaker.png/220px-NASA_and_NOAA_Announce_Ozone_Hole_is_a_Double_Record_Breaker.png (14)
Depletion of Ozone Layer [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-ttJoEwZQQR4/T8touHEy7WI/AAAAAAAAAgY/t_KDT8wToMc/s320/asedfr.JPG (7)
Is the ozone layer on the road to recovery? [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/2013/istheozonela.jpg (10)
Big Sexy Hair Spray and Play Volumizing Hairspray, 10 oz [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.soap.com/p/big-sexy-hair-spray-and-play-volumizing-hairspray-37769 (5)
Make a statement in your kitchen with Electrolux’s American style frost-free fridge freezer [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://newsroom.electrolux.com/uk/files/2011/06/Electrolux-ENL60710X-sbs-fridge-lr-225x300.jpg (11)
Montreal Protocol [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/07aug/00542/montreal_protocol.jpg (12)
NRDC: An important message from Pierce Brosnan [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://selvavidasinfronteras.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/nrdc-logo2.jpg (13)
CHRYSALIDOCARPUS LUTESCENS [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.ikea.com/us/en/images/products/chrysalidocarpus-lutescens-potted-plant__67424_PE181267_S4.jpg (6)
Available from www.youtube.com/watch?v=6QyI3Yo1sf4‎Similar(16)
reference video
Introduction to Ozone [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.ucar.edu/learn/images/3oxygen.gif (9)
Available from www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrSPhsFosRg(17)
Figure 1. Seasonal thinning of the ozone layer above Antarctica. [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/images/gw/ozone_hole_NASA.jpg (8)
Abdullah & Ahmad

As methyl bromide and halons are broken apart, they release bromine atoms, which are 60 times more destructive to ozone molecules than chlorine atoms. (1)

(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.generalnewss.com/tips-on-choosing-the-right-perfume-for-you/ (4)
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