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Transcript of Allusions
Matthew Cruz Advanced Placement English Language and Composition
Mrs. K. Williams allusion, noun : a figure of speech that makes a reference to a place, person, or something that happened; it can be real or imaginary and may refer to anything, including paintings, opera, folk lore, mythical figures, or religious manuscripts; the reference can be direct or may be inferred, and can broaden the reader’s understanding. Allusions to be covered in this presentation: Arthurian - Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
- Morgan le Fay Fairy Tale - The Pied Piper of Hamelin
- Little Red Riding Hood
- Hansel and Gretel Biblical - Moses
- Abraham and Isaac
- Tower of Babel Greek and Roman Mythology - Daedalus and Icarus
- Cupid and Psyche
- The Illiad biblical, adjective : of or relating to the bible, which is the sacred collection of ancient writings including the books of both the Old Testament and the New Testament in Christianity. Moses moral: God keeps his word and his promises. At the time of Moses's birth, the Pharaoh of Egypt ordered all Israelite boy babies to be murdered.
Moses's mother hides him for three months, and then puts him in a basket placed in the river and allows him to be rescued by one of the Pharaoh's daughters.
Moses is raised in the Pharaoh's palace as an adopted son of his rescuer.
When he is older, he goes to see his people, and witnesses an overseer beating a fellow Israelite. Moses kills the Egyptian, and is forced to flee from his home when the Pharaoh orders his execution for committing murder. God speaks to Moses in a burning bush and orders him to go free the Israelites from slavery.
When Pharaoh refuses Moses's request, God unleashes ten plagues upon the Egyptians, prompting the Pharaoh to finally free the Israelites.
Pharaoh quickly reverses his decision and has his soldiers follow the Israelites to the Red Sea.
Moses parts the Red Sea and allows all the Israelites to reach the other side before closing it and therefore drowning the soldiers who had been pursuing them. During the journey to the promised land, Moses receives the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai.
God tells Moses to speak to a rock in order to get water from it. Instead of just speaking to the rock, Moses strikes it and also chastises his people for their idolization of a golden calf instead of allowing God to handle it-showing his lack of trust in God and his inability to follow instructions.
God punishes Moses and does not allow him to enter the promised land, and Moses is only able to see the land from a distance and later dies at the age of 120. Abraham and Isaac Abraham, a very old faithful servant of God who has previously been unable to successfully have a child, is told he and his wife will have a son.
After failed attempts, his wife insists that because she is too old to carry a child, Abraham should have a child with the servant.
After Abraham has his first son, his wife finally becomes pregnant, and their child is named Isaac.
God orders Abraham to sacrifice his son on an altar. This was a test to prove his faith, and right before Abraham is about to kill Isaac, God shows Abraham a lamb to sacrifice instead. moral: faith in God does not fail. Tower of Babel moral: the power of man does not compare to the power of a God. The people united to build a tower to heaven.
When God came to see the tower he became upset at their prideful efforts.
God confused their language so they could not understand each other, and scattered the people of the city across the earth.
The construction of the Tower of Babel, which means confusion in Hebrew, was never finished. mythology, noun : a set of stories or beliefs about a particular person, institution, or situation, esp. when exaggerated or fictitious. Daedalus and Icarus moral: listen to and obey your parents Daedalus, a skilled inventor, is locked up in a tower by King Minos.
He plans to escape tower by inventing wings since King Minos controls the land and sea.
Daedalus uses small feathers and gradually switches to larger feathers creating an increasing surface. Small feathers were waxed together while larger feathers were secured with a thread.
Daedalus teaches his child, Icarus, how to fly. He warns Icarus that flying too low will damp and clog the wings while flying too high will cause the heat from the sun to melt the wax. Daedalus advises Icarus to stay near him to prevent such events from happening.
Daedalus and Icarus fly off from the tower.
Icarus ignores his dad and flies higher, which causes the heat from the sun to melt the wax which held the feathers together.
Icarus falls from the skies and dies. Cupid and Psyche moral: love cannot exist without trust. A king and a queen have three daughters and one of their daughters, named Psyche, is very beautiful.
Venus, the god of love and beauty, is jealous of the attention Psyche is getting.
Venus is so jealous that she orders her son Cupid to punish Psyche.
Cupid is mesmerized Psyche's beauty and accidentally hits himself with his arrow and falls in love with Psyche.
Venus is still mad at Psyche and punishes her by preventing people from loving her. Both of Psyche’s sisters are married and Psyche’s parents are worried about her not being married.
Psyche’s parents consult an oracle which tells them that Psyche is destined to marry a monster and that they are to leave Psyche at a mountain.
While Psyche is left on the mountain, she is led to a castle where everything is hers, and she is treated like a queen.
Psyche’s destined lover only comes at night when Psyche cannot see him.
She gets homesick and persuades her lover to let her sisters visit. Psyche’s sisters visit and ask her many questions about her husband. They force Psyche to believe her husband is a monster.
Psyche’s distrust and curiosity leads her to bring a lamp and a knife to her lover, but she finds that Cupid is a very handsome man.
Cupid leaves Psyche and Psyche seeks help from Venus to regain Cupid’s love.
Venus instructs Psyche to complete different tasks and challenges.
After completing all challenges, Cupid goes back to Psyche and brings her to Jupiter to make her immortal.
Psyche and Cupid live happily ever after. The Iliad moral: don’t be selfish, love your companions, and be careful what you wish for. During the tenth year of the Trojan War, the Achaians (name for the Ancient Greeks) are having problems in their society.
King Agamemnon holds a captive, Chryses’s daughter.
Chryses begs for his daughter but Agamemnon refuses to release her, causing Chryses to pray to the god Apollo.
Apollo gives the Achaians a plague for nine days, which causes Agamemnon to give the daughter back to Chryses, but he must get Briseis, the girlfriend of Achilleus (the greatest warrior of the Achaians).
Achilleus gives up his girlfriend but is filled with rage.
Achilleus gives up fighting and prays to his mother, Thetis, who is a goddess. Thetis grants Achilleus’s wish that the Achaians will start losing battles and realize how much they need him.
Since Achilleus’s wish is granted, the Trojans make a successful attack against the Achaians.
Achilleus’s best friend, Patroklos, wants to help fight the Trojans.
Achilleus gives Patroklos his armor in battle, which causes the Trojan to be afraid, thinking he is the real Achilleus.
Hektor kills Patroklos, and realizes that he is not Achilleus when he takes the armor off.
Achilleus hears of the event and becomes furious. Achilleus gets a new armor from the fire god Hephaistos, and he kills many Trojans in the next battle including Hektor, the killer of his best friend.
Achilleus is so furious that he keeps Hektor’s body and tortures it for a few days.
The gods don’t like Achilleus’s actions and orders Achilleus to give the body back to the Trojans for a proper funeral.
Achilleus gives the body back to King Priam, leader of the Trojan, and they share a dinner together.
Achilleus dies and Troy is captured. The Pied Piper of Hamelin moral: always keep your promise. fairy tale, noun : a fanciful tale of legendary deeds and creatures, usually intended for children. The town of Hamelin is overrun by an enormous amount of troublesome rats. The townspeople demand that the Mayor and the “Corporation" destroy the rats or else they will remove them from power.
The Mayor calls a meeting, and they cannot find a solution until a mysterious man, with bizarre clothing and a flute around his neck, arrives and tells them that he has a secret charm that leads creatures to follow him when he wants.
Piper leads all the rats outside with his flute to a river where all but one rat dies.
Instead of paying the Piper his promised 1,000 gilders (gold), the Mayor pays him 50 and then blows him off.
The Piper, set for revenge, plays his flute and lures the children to follow him out of town, though their parents cannot move. The Piper reaches a mountain and all the children disappear with him into a magic portal.
Like with the rat, one boy is left behind, but is sad for the rest of his life for never being able to see the promise in the Piper’s song.
The city of Hamelin mourns the loss of all its children and tries in a failed attempt to offer gilders to the Piper. The town memorializes the children and rebuilds itself.
Meanwhile, there is a story of a Transylvania tribe of alien people whose parents came from a secret prison. They are said to have been trepanned in a band from the town of Hamelin in Brunswick, but the children do not know why. Little Red Riding Hood moral: be careful when by yourself and do not speak or trust strangers. A little girl named Little Red Riding Hood (Red) travels through the woods to another village to see her ill grandmother.
She is approached by a mean wolf (Big Bad Wolf) who has been secretly following her, and she blindly tells the wolf where she is going.
The wolf tells Red to pick some flowers, so in the meantime he can beat her to her grandmother’s house.
The wolf swallows the grandmother whole, and waits in her bed disguised in her clothing, waiting for Red.
Red arrives and notices that her “grandmother” looks very different, commenting on the size of her "grandmother's” various body parts.
When Red says “what big teeth you have,” the wolf whispers “the better to eat you with,” and eats her. Hansel and Gretel moral: never go into a stranger's house Due to lack of food, the abusive second wife of a woodcutter tries to convince her husband to abandon his two children, Hansel and Gretel, in the woods so that the woodcutter and his wife will not starve.
Hansel over hears the stepmother's vicious plan and collects white pebbles to create a path back home for himself and his sister.
After the first attempt to abandon the children fails, the stepmother orders her husband to take his children farther into the woods, and this time they get completely lost because the breadcrumbs Hansel placed earlier were eaten by birds.
They later wander to a cottage made of candy, and immediately start eating it. An old woman comes out of the house and lures the children inside the house with food, and turns out to actually be a witch who locks Hansel in a cage and makes Gretel a servant.
The witch feeds Hansel a lot of food to make him fat to eat, but grows impatient and decides she will eat him regardless of his size.
When the witch tries to prepare the oven for Hansel, Gretel pushes her inside and burns her to ashes.
Hansel and Gretel collect food and money from the witches house and return home, where they find that their stepmother has passed away and live happily with their father. arthurian, adjective : of or relating to King
Arthur and his court. Merlin is the handy wizard that makes stuff happen for much of the first part of Le Morte D'Arthur. If Arthur is Corleone, then Merlin's his wartime consigliere, dolling out advice and providing a push in the right (or wrong) direction when needed. Here are a few examples:
Uther wants to sleep with another man's wife? Done – Merlin just disguises him as the other lad and sends him to her bedchamber. England needs a new king? No problem – Merlin puts a sword in a stone with an inscription saying that the puller is the King of England and voila! – instant king-maker. Want to get rid of a newborn threat to your rule in Camelot? Hey, Arthur, here's an idea: put all the babies born on May Day on a boat and send it off to sea. He’s also a valuable source of information for Arthur. Don't forget, the man can see the future. When Arthur fights his way to a stalemate with the alliance of Northern Kings, Merlin advises him to withdraw, predicting the kings will be occupied by invading Saracens for a few years to come. Sure enough, that proves true, and saves Arthur from wasting valuable energy and resources on a battle that doesn't really need to be waged. Sometimes, though, having a guy who sees the future isn't all it's cracked up to be. Merlin's prediction that Arthur's own son will destroy his kingdom causes Arthur to take to his bed in despair. And Merlin's advice isn't always the greatest, like his suggestion that Arthur cast all the boys in the kingdom born on May Day out to sea in an attempt to solve the problem. Not only does this not work; it makes Arthur look like a really cruel, unjust king. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight All the people of King Arthur's court are gathered to feast and celebrate the Christmas season, though King Arthur himself refuses to eat until he has been sufficiently entertained with a story or by witnessing something interesting.
A large, mysterious stranger with green skin and clothing riding a large green horse and holding a decorated axe enters the hall.
The Green Knight mockingly challenges to test the honor of any knight in the room who is willing to strike the Green Knight with one axe blow, as long as this same knight returns to receive an axe blow from the Green Knight a year and a day later.
Sir Gawain, King Arthur's nephew, stops King Arthur from striking the Green Knight because it would be shameful for him to do so. Sir Gawain volunteers instead and chops the head of the Green Knight off.
The Green Knight picks up his own head and tells Sir Gawain to meet him at the Green Chapel in a year and a day, and then rides off on his horse. When the next holiday season arrives, Gawain sets out to find the Green Chapel, and comes across a large castle where he is invited to join the hosts in feasting for the holidays.
The lord of the castle persuades Sir Gawain to stay by saying he can guide Gawain to the Green Chapel, and proposes a game with Gawain that at the end of each day they will exchange what each of them has won throughout the day-the lord from hunting and Sir Gawain from lounging by the fire.
The next day the lady of the castle flirts with Gawain and encourages him to kiss her, and he complies. He exchanges the kisses he received with meat the lord of the castle aquires during the day.
The lady of the castle offers Gawain a green girdle that will make the wearer invincible. Knowing this will help him in battle, Gawain keeps the belt instead of exchanging it with the lord at the end of the day. Gawain is guided to the Green Chapel were he later finds that the Green Knight is actually the man he had been staying with-Lord Bertilak, who is equipped with the power of Morgan le Fay, King Arthur's sorcerer, and Bertilak was sent by Morgan to Arthur's court to scare Queen Guinevere.
The Green Knight moves to make the first blow, but stops and orders Gawain to stop flinching. The second time, the Green Knight moves to make a blow but stops, as he only wants to test if Gawain is ready. The third time, the Green Knight strikes a blow, cutting Gawain's skin, but he does not cut his head off.
The Green Knight explains that the first two blows were in return for Gawain returning the kisses of Bertilak's wife, and the third was for not exchanging the girdle. The Green Knight forgives Gawain for not exchanging the girdle because he knows Gawain only did it to protect himself. Sir Gawain refuses Bertilsk's offer for him to stay longer, and returns to Arthur's court. He tells of his adventure, and declares he will wear his girdle for the rest of his life as a reminder.The rest of the court laughs and they suggest that they should all wear similar girdles, just for Gawain's benefit.
The tradition of wearing girdles is passed down to future generations and becomes a symbol of honor. moral: always keep your honor by being honest and chivalrous. Arthur, the son and first heir to the throne of King Uther Pendragon is born.
Because of the troubled times, a wise magician named Merlin advises that the identity of baby Arthur should be concealed and he should be raised in a secret place. In the legends about King Arthur, the king has the help and advice of a powerful wizard named Merlin.
Merlin is entrusted with raising Arthur and prepares him for kingship.
Merlin later becomes King Arthur's trusted adviser and helper. He is responsible for fashioning the magical sword that proves Arthur should be King, and also creates the Round Table where Arthur's knights are to sit.
Despite his wisdom and power, even Merlin could not prevent King Arthur's downfall, as stated in every version of the Arthurian legends.
Some stories of Merlin say he "loses his wits" after Arthur is defeated. Other versions say he is tricked by a woman he falls in love with named Nimuë, a witch, who is also called the Lady of the Lake. After learning Merlin's tricks, she traps him underground so he can never escape. Merlin moral: good advice and wisdom goes a long way when followed correctly. Morgan le Fay moral: women can be equally powerful and manipulative as men. Morgan is the daughter of King Arthur's mother Igraine and Igraine's first husband, the Duke of Cornwall, making her Arthur's half sister.
She works against Arthur many times: once giving his Excalibur to Accolon, her lover, so he can use it against Arthur. She also steals and throws the scabbard of Excalibur, Arthur's protection, into a lake.
Morgan is able to morph into different shapes and fly.
She instigates the Green Knight's visit to King Arthur's court in "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", to scare Queen Guinevere, who she is upset with for previously putting an end to Morgan's affair with Guiomar, Guinevere's cousin.
Despite the schemes Morgan typically plays against Arthur and Guinevere, she heals leads him to Avalon to be healed. Works Cited