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Intro to Geography

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Mark Giansanti

on 14 September 2015

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Transcript of Intro to Geography

GEOGRAPHY
What is geography?
Geography is the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features of the Earth.

How do we use geography everyday?
Find Locations and Maneuver Roads
Plan Trips
Track Shipments
Check Weather Conditions and Forecasts
Orient Yourself Using Visual Clues
Where is an object?
Absolute location:
The exact place on Earth where the feature is found using lines of Longitude and Latitude.
For example:
The city of Newark, DE is located at
N 39.679111
W 75.758040

Relative location:
How a place is related to its surrounding environment.

Example:
Ft. Delaware is on Pea Patch Island midway across the Delaware River from Delaware City.
LOCATION
What is at a location?

Physical and cultural features that set a place apart from others.

Because human interactions with the environment and cultures change over time, place can change over time.
PLACE
Groups locations and places based on similarities and differences.

Formal Regions:
recognized borders established by governments.

Functional Regions:
organized around a set of interactions or connections.

Perceptual Regions:
people see the characteristics of the region in the same way.
REGION
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
How do people relate to the physical world?

How do people shape the lands they live on?

How do the lands affect culture and the way people live?
How do people, goods, and ideas move from one place to another?

Linear Distance:
How far across the Earth one location is from another.

Time Distance:
the amount of time it takes for a person, good or idea to travel.

Psychological Distance:
the way people view distance

1. Areas you are more familiar with seem closer than areas you know less about.

2. Distances seem larger when you are younger, but seem to shrink as you get older.
MOVEMENT
Five Themes
of
Geography
How do the
5 Themes of Geograph
y apply to DAPSS?
1. Location
2. Place
3. Region
4. Human-Environment Interaction
5. Movement
CHECK FOR UNDERSTANDING

MAP COMPONENTS
1. Title
2. Compass Rose
3. Legend/Key
4. Map Scale
5. Labels
6. Symbols
7. Latitude
8. Longitude
9. Colors
1
6
3
9
7 & 8
4
2
5
Map Scale
Map scale determines how much detail will be shown.

Small Scale: Less detail

Large Scale: More detail
Which map is a large scale map?
Which map presents information in a larger scale?
What are longitude and latitude?

What are they used for?

How do we tell them apart?

What are the names of the 3 major grid lines?
2 Longitude
1 Latitude
Imaginary grid lines used to show exact location.

Longitude- 0-180 running north to south

Latitude- 0-90 running east to west.

Prime Meridian (0° Longitude)

International Date Line (180 ° Longitude)

Equator (0 ° Latitude)
TYPES
OF
MAPS
Physical Maps:
Show the features of the Earth’s surface.
Political Maps:
Show the features of the Earth created by people.
Ex cities, countries, states.
Thematic Maps:
Representations of the Earth to show patterns in data over space.
Qualitative Maps:
Use colors, symbols, dots, or lines to show patterns over a geographic area.
Cartograms:
Information is presented about a country based on a set of data other than land area.

Sizes of countries vary in proportion to the data being displayed rather than land area.
Flow-Line Maps:
Use arrows to illustrate movement across a geographic space.

Arrows tell us the location, direction, and scope of the movement being examined.
Make Your Own Map:
Using your neighborhood, house, or school create a map showing where things are located.

Your map must include:
a title
a compass
labels
a key with at least 3 symbols and 3 colors.

Your map should be neat, colorful, and creative, completed on graph paper or computer paper ONLY.

Be sure to include lots of detail
VOCABULARY CHECK:

Have the following terms listed, defined, and provided with an example.

1. LOCATION
2. PLACE
3. REGION
4. HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
5. MOVEMENT
6. SCALE
7. LATITUDE
8. LONGITUDE
9. PHYSICAL MAP
10. POLITICAL MAP
11. THEMATIC MAP
12. QUALITATIVE MAP
13. CARTOGRAM
14. FLOW-LINE MAP
Structure of the Earth
How Plates Move
Magma in the mantle:
heats
expands
rises towards the crust.

As magma rises it:
cools
begins to condense
circulate back down

Cycle continues like a conveyor belt beneath the earth.

Fault: area between two plates

Divergent: magma rises as plates spread, cools when it comes into contact with water and forms new rock.

Convergent: builds up mountain chains.

Subduction: causes volcanoes to form.

Collision: causes build up of mountains.

Transform: causes earthquakes as two plates try to slide past each other.
Plate
Boundaries
Breakdown / transformation of rock.

Mechanical
aka
Physical Weathering:

physical forces break down or reduce a rock to smaller and smaller fragments, involving no chemical change.

Chemical Weathering:
breakdown of rock and sediment by chemical processes.
The end result changes the chemical composition of the rock.
Weathering
Transform boundary:

Plates slide past each other creating friction, sudden release of energy cause quakes.

EX: Earthquake in California
Undersea quake causes tsunami
Divergent boundary:

Plates spread, new magma rises and cools forming new oceanic crust.

EX: Red Sea widens
Marianas Trench deepens
Convergent boundary:

Plates slam into each other violently causing the rising of new peaks.

EX: Building of the Himalayas
Building of the Rockies
1. Rock bounces along the bottom of a fast moving river, getting smaller and smoother as it travels along the river.

2. Burial of toxic materials underground causes the decay of soil material, overtime creating a sinkhole.

3. Iron railing comes into contact with water for a prolonged period of time causing the formation of rust.
UNDERSTANDING QUIZ:
4. Water fills cracks in the asphalt when it rains, as it gets colder, the water freezes into ice, causing the crack to expand into a pothole.

5. A new, volcanic island appears in the Pacific. What could have caused this?

6. Two plates slide by each other off the coast of Japan. The impact this has on Japan would most likely be which two types of events?
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