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Hinduism

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Moxa Patel

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of Hinduism

Beliefs

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Hinduism
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What is Hinduism?

Hinduism is one of the oldest known organized religions. It is also one of the most diverse and complex, having millions of gods. Hinduism is believed to have gotten it’s name from the Persian word “Hindu” which means "river," used by outsiders to describe the people of the Indus River Valley. Hindus, the followers of Hinduism, refer to their religion as “sanatama dharma”, which means "eternal religion," and “varnasramadharma”, a word that emphasizes the fulfillment of duties, appropriate to one's class, and stage of life. Hindus have a wide variety of core beliefs and exist in many different sects. Hinduism is more than a religion. It is a set of instructions that inform individuals of how to live a virtuous life.

Origin of Hinduism
Hinduism is the only religion that does not have a founder. It is a culture that flourished in India, which later became a great religion. In 1500 BCE, when the Aryan people invaded north-western India, the cultures mixed, which created the base of Hinduism. Hinduism exists primarily in India. However, people practice the religion all over the world, in different places like Maldives, Cambodia, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri-Lanka, United Kingdom, and United States. It has more than seven hundred million followers throughout the world.

Brahman created a law that states that every living thing is an individual. However, in the spiritual world all living things have the same spirit.
In Hinduism, Atman is the realization of Brahman. It is when you are connected to everyone else and realize that you need to respect everyone and everything in the world.
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Dharma
In Hinduism dharma is something that you need to accomplish in life. If one is not able to accomplish it, then he/she must either wait longer to achieve Moksha or be reincarnated to something such as an animal, or something in a lower rank. Hindus believe that if an individual did accomplish dharma in their last life then, they will be born in a family of a higher rank or get closer to achieve Moksha.
Karma
Karma means "actions" or "deeds". Many people view Karma as a cause and an effect. Hindus believe that all individuals gather Karma throughout their lifetime. In the Hinduism religion, Karma is referred to the actions, thoughts, and goods words used by people that affects them in a good way in the future. However, having bad thoughts, actions, and using bad words impact individuals badly, when being reincarnated and trying to achieve Moksha.
Reincarnation
According to Hinduism, a being has to live many lives and undergo many experiences before it attains perfection and becomes one with the divine. Hindus believe that if you are not achieving Moksha as another animal or human then, depending on your Karma it will have a bad or good impact in your Dharma.

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Brahman
In Hinduism, a Brahman is referred as the absolute god of Hindus. He occupies the highest place as the creator of all creation. Brahman is the light and delight of the universe, as well as the ruler and the lord, without the beginning and without an end. He is indestructible, indescribable, and is completely blissfully immersed in himself.
Reincarnation
According to Hinduism, a being has to live many lives and undergo many experiences before it attains perfection and becomes one with the Divine. Hindus believe that if you are not achieving Moksha as another animal or human then, depending on your Karma it will have a bad or good impact in your Dharma.

Moksha
Moksha is when your soul is liberated from the cycle of death and rebirth (Samara). Moksha is associated with reincarnation, whereby every person must strive hard and perform good deeds, so that his or her soul may rest in peace after his or her death. However, Moksha is the final destination in life. It is when your soul has no desires or suffering and is joined with Brahman, where it can rest forever.
Reincarnation moves you through the caste system. Higher castes are closer to nirvana.

The Hinduism caste system ranks society according to one's occupation. The lowest rank was the untouchables and the highest was the Brahmins. The untouchables lived a difficult life. They were given given the worst jobs and were treated very unfairly from others.
Hinduism is a religion that believes in reincarnation and karma. According to Hindus, those who have accumulated good karma will be born into better circumstances or will be born to a higher caste system, upon their next rebirth.
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Nirvana is a place or state of being in peace or complete happiness.
Hindu Gods
Hinduism is technically considered to be a polytheistic religion because Hindus worship to more than one god. However, according to the law of Brahman, Hindu people consider themselves to be monotheistic because they believe that even though all the gods take different forms, they are still all one spirit.
According to the scriptures, in the Hinduism religion there are more than three hundred and twenty million gods. These gods are just the different forms of the same gods or the reincarnation of the same god.
There are three major gods and the most widely recognized gods in Hinduism. These gods are Brahman: the creator, Shiva: the preserver, and Vishnu: the destroyer. However, Brahman is the only main god .
Some Other Gods/Goddess:
1. Goddess Saraswati- The consort of god Brahman, as well as the goddess of knowledge.
2. Goddess Laxmi- The consort of God Vishnu and the goddess of wealth, delight, beauty, and love.
3. Goddess Parvati- The consort of god Shiva and as well is the goddess of transformation, power, and destrution.
4. Sati Maa- The form of Goddess Parvati.
5. Durga Maa- the form of goddess Parvati and has the energy of a mother.
6. Kali Mata- Has a destructive and harmful energy power.
7. The Mahadevi- Ganga Mata- the holy river.
8. Yamuna Maa- the holy river.
There are two main texts in the Hinduism religion which are the Vedas and the Upanishads.
The Vedas
The Vedas are the most important and sacred texts of Hindus. It is adopted by Hinduism from the Indus River Valley and is called "The book of knowledge" because it contains traditions and mostly all Hindus worship in it. The Vedas are the world's most ancient scripture. The earliest written Vedas was written in about 1400 B.C.E. The language of the Vedas is Sanskrit, a language that is so holy that the word Sanskrit itself means "perfect". There are four type of Vedas: The Rig Veda The Sama Veda, The Yajur Veda, and The Atharva Veda.
The Upanishads
The Upanishads are a continuation of the Vedic philosophy, and were written between 800 and 400 B.C. They provide more information on how the soul or Atman the Hindu word for soul, can be united with the ultimate truth Brahman, through contemplation and mediation, as well as the doctrine of Karma, which is the cumulative effects of a persons actions.
Sacred Texts
Hindu Sacred Texts And Literature
Literature
Ramayana
Ramayana is one of major Hinduism literature and as well is the greatest Indian Sanskrit epic written by Valmiki. It is a book that talks about war, when India was under attack by the Aryans, family, and a warrior's bravery. The epic or literature is a spiritual and cultural guide. It teaches an individual on how to face worldly problems, follow the right course of actions, and how to be a righteous person in control of one's mind and senses .
The Mahabharata is one of the Sanskrit greatest epic poem and one of the most important text in the Hinduism religion. It was written by Maharishi Ved Vyas and discusses the points of morality. This means that it talks about being honest and truthful to your family as well as to your Dharma. Mahabharat is teaches an individual of how to wash all Karma and become free of all Karma (god).
Bhagavad Gita
The Bhagavad-gita is a very important poem/book that consist of seven hundred Sanskrit verses. It is a very important part of Mahabharata. The Bhagavad Gita literally means "the song of God". It is book that not only talks about Liberation but, as well as on how to live in this world, how to lead a righteous life, accumulate wealth the right way, and enjoy worldly pleasures the right way. The Bhagavad Gita explains the four goals in life for Hindu's which are Dharma (Righteousness), Artha (Wealth), Kama (Pleasure) and Moksha (Liberation).
Mahabharata
Rituals & Practices
Rituals & Practices
The Hinduism religion is composed of a variety of ritual practices. However, mostly all Hindu's do a ritual that is very common and it is called "Bhakti, which means praying. Mostly all Hindu's have a small temple in their house that consist of Hindu gods. Every morning the Hindu's take a shower and sit on the floor in front of the temple with their legs crossed and pray with two hands folded. However, before one prays Hindu's always light up a lamp. It is a custom that has an significance in knowledge and Hindu's believe that knowledge is the most important thing in one's life. Also, while prayer Hindu's meditate the word OM because it is the creator of the universe and the combination of many gods. The word OM has many different meanings.
Continuation of R & P
Additionally, many Indian women place a red dot on their forehead because it indicates a symbol of their marriage. This black color is used to counteract the effect of the evil eye. If a lovely young girl gets too many compliments, Indians feel that some kind of harm may come to her, so this dot repels evil influences. Lastly, being vegetarian is a type of Hindu ritual which dictates that "no harm may be done to other living beings." Even though some Hindus eat meat, this is largely relegated to chicken, lamb, and goat meat. Beef is eaten only in the rarest of occasions, due to the sacred supremacy of the cow in India.
Hinduism Festivals
There are numerous major Hindu festivals as well as other minor ones. The major festivals
include Deepavali, Holi, Narvarti, Raksha Bandan, and Krishna Janmashtami.

Deepavali
Deepavali is one of the major Hinduism festivals. It is celebrated at the end of October- November. Deepavali means a row of lights and Hindu's light up lamps throughout their whole house and wear new clothes everyday until the festival is over. For some individuals the festival may be three days long while for others it can last a week. However, every family gets together and spends time with their family.
Holi
Holi is a festival that is celebrated in spring. It is
when people spray colored water on each other, and sing and dance. Also, it is when all the rich and poor are treated equally and everyone embraces each other.
Navaratri
Navaratri is one of the longest festivals in the Hinduism religion. It is a festival that comes twice a year and last for nine days. Navartri is a time if year where everyone wear's their Indian clothes and does "Garba" and "Dandiya" which are two typically Indian dances.
Raksha Bandhan
Raksha Bandhan is celebrated in August or September. It is when one sister ties a holy thread on her brother's hand to keep him away from evil influences.
Krishna Janmashtami
Krishna Janmashtami is a festival
celebrated in honor of Lord Krishna being born. Temples are decorated and many foods are made for him. Songs are sung and many other fun activities are played.
Clothing
Hindu women usually wear a saree and it is the
official clothing of a Hindu women. There are also other clothings for a Hindu women which includes Punjabi dresses, Ghagra Choli, Salwar Kameez, lehengas, etc. However, a saree is the most common outfit.
Women Clothing
Men Clothing
Hindu men do not have many traditional clothes as the Hindu women. Hindu men basically just wear a Kurta, Sherwani, and Lungi. However, now a days Hindu men just wear a suit to mostly every party they attend.
Bollywood
What is Bollywood?
Bollywood is the Indian movie industry. It has many famous actors and actresses and it first began in Mumbai.
Bollywood Actors and Actresses
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