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Forensic Science

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Diana Tan

on 15 December 2013

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Transcript of Forensic Science

→As a forensic scientist, you must be accurate, methodical and thorough in your investigations. Patience, attention to detail and problem solving skills are very important.
Advantages of Forensic Scientist
You are very much involved in your job and it is a very hands-on profession
What do they do on a daily basis?
What exactly does these
geniuses do
Forensic scientists employ their education and knowledge of technology in their search for truth, regardless of whether their findings agree with circumstantial evidence.
Disadvantages of Forensic Scientist
the amount of work fluctuates from day to day - some days there is a very high workload and other days there is little to do
Well, the Laboratory they work in is divided in to three sections.
This section deals largely with crimes against the person, examining hairs, fibres, blood and other body fluids in cases such as assault, murder and sexual assault.
Chemistry and Drugs/Toxicology:
→ The Chemistry section deals mainly with crimes against property, examining materials such as fingerprints, paint, glass, fire debris, shoe prints, hair, fibres, soil and explosives.
→ In the Drugs section, suspected drugs of abuse seized by the Gardai are analysed to see if they are controlled substances. Items that might have come into contact with drugs such as weighing scales, knives to cut up a drug like cannabis resin, or hypodermic syringes used to inject drugs are examined for traces of controlled drugs.

→The Forensic scientist takes full responsibility for the scientific work required in a criminal case. This involves analytical laboratory work using quite a wide range of instrumental techniques. The scientist then writes a report on the results for the Gardai and the Director of Public Prosecutions. The scientist would frequently present the work orally to a court and defend that work under legal cross-examination. Some time could also be spent attending at crime scenes and lecturing to Gardai on the work of the laboratory.
These scientists wants to clear that!!
→ Although you will spend large amounts of time routine testing in laboratories, you must also be prepared to visit disturbing murder scenes, or to identify the drug taken in a fatal overdose.
→Good communication skills are very important. In court, you need to be able to explain your findings clearly to lawyers, jurors and the public. You may also be cross-examined.
→A Forensic Scientist has a large responsibility for examining substances carefully and
accurately and presenting
detailed results clearly.
They must keep up to date with
technical developments.
''Forensic Science''
Forensic Science is the study of crime scenes,the scientists that studies 'Forensic Science' run scientific tests and provide unbiased evidence to be used in a court of law. They use cutting-edge technology and scientific theory to search for clues and aid police/gardai investigation.

This course choice should not be based on the TV programme C.S.I. (Crime Scene Investigation) It has been widely emphasized that C.S.I. portrays a fictionalized view of this profession. Forensic scientists spend a lot more time in the laboratory carrying out experiments than working in the field.
They examine the items that was submitted to the laboratory by the team ( that works on the field) if body fluids are present eg. blood, saliva, urine etc.

Evidence samples can be difficult to identify since they may be mixed with other substances, so a forensic chemist who specializes in chemical identification may have to use analytical techniques in order to separate the chemical compounds of a sample.
Drugs/Toxicology UNIT
They perform tests on samples collected by crime scene investigators.
If body fluid stains are noted on the evidence, they perform chemical extraction processes to remove the DNA from the stain.
Once the DNA is removed, additional chemical processes are utilized in specific machines to replicate specific areas of DNA that can help to uniquely identify the source of the body fluid.
Every case is unique - you are never doing the exact same thing over again so it is harder to get bored
You work very closely with others and get to meet many new people everyday
Forensic scientists are often faced with unpleasant crime-scenes or evidence, so a strong stomach is necessary.
They sometimes have to work in freezing cold conditions at unsociable hours.
if you make a mistake you have to admit when you are wrong because if you do not, innocent people might be punished for something they didn't do, while guilty ones are set free
Maeriel Benedicto
You help bring justice for everyone
Forensic Science is very important to society!
In criminal justice, when evidence is available, forensic scientists and their work may:
Help to determine if a crime has been committed
Help to determine how and when a crime was committed
and more..
Training required!
The basic requirement for most forensic science technician jobs is a bachelor's degree in forensic science or a natural science, such as chemistry, biology, molecular biology or physics.
In addition to extensive math and science coursework, classes in criminal justice, criminal law, forensic archaeology, statistics, public speaking and composition may also be useful. Forensic science technicians often take continuing education courses throughout their career.
A master's degree may be required for senior-level, supervisory and management positions in forensic science. A master's degree field of study often correlates with a forensic science technician's career specialty.
Some forensic scientists need a doctoral degree related to their field of practice. Specialists in forensic jurisprudence must have a law degree and belong to at least one state bar, according to American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Starting salaries can be around £12000-£15000 a year.
With experience, earnings may reach £25,000 to £35,000 a year. Senior forensic scientists may earn £45,000 or more.

Help to determine what sequence of events occurred at a crime scene
Identify the guilty
Identify victims
A comparison is then made to DNA profiles from any individuals believed to be involved in the crime (suspects and victims). If the DNA profile from the evidence matches a person, and that DNA profile is exceedingly rare, then it can be stated that they are the source of that DNA.
Reports have to be written for all testing performed, and it is possible that any one of the cases worked may end up going to trial where expert testimony is needed.
13 years as a Forensic Scientist
They will use a gas chromatograph, an instrument that separates compounds from other impurities, like dust or dirt, in an evidence sample.
Based on the chemical compounds that are extracted, they can then make conclusions on what a sample is or where it came from
In addition to identifying and analyzing crime scene evidence, they may need to have mock trial courtroom to testify in criminal cases as an expert witness and present their conclusions on the evidence to the jury.
They compare the evidence with previous cases in order to give an expert opinion as to how that evidence specifically implicates a suspect
A forensic chemist usually work in law enforcement laboratories, they must give unbiased, purely scientifically-based findings, even if the testimony works in favor of the defense.
They use highly sophisticated instruments, chemical reagents and precise methodologies to determine the presence or absence of specific substances in the sample.
The forensic toxicologist must document every step of the process, and take care to follow rules regarding chain of custody for physical evidence.
They also work on cases involving environmental contamination, to determine the impact of chemical spills on nearby populations.
Investigators rely on the forensic toxicologist to make reliable conclusions about the impact a specific amount of a specific substance would have on a specific individual
If asked to testify in court, the forensic toxicologist must be prepared to justify that opinion and to explain complex methodologies in terms a jury can understand.
In laboratory it is divided into three sections:
Biology Unit
Chemistry Unit
Drugs/Toxicology Unit
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