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Global Issues in the Modern World

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Marci Ward

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Global Issues in the Modern World

20th century revolutions
Mexico (1911): caused by unequal dist. of land and wealth, too much dependence on US --> led to land redistribution, limited power of Cath church, and democratic elections
India
Israel and Palestine
Modern Genocides
Rwanda: Hutu govt. killed close to 1 million Tutsis during civil war

Bosnia: Communism collapses in E. Euro --> ethnic conflict between Serbs, Catholics, and Muslims
"Ethnic cleansing"- Bosnian Serbs murder Muslims and other minorities

Darfur: Arabs in Sudan raped, killed Africans and forced them from their homes
Globalization
Decolonization in Africa
Global Issues in the Modern World
China (1911): revolt against the Qing dynasty, led by Sun-Yat Sen, formed republic and redistributed land, eventually leads to civil war in which communism prevails
Russia (1917): communists promised "peace, land, and bread" in the aftermath of WW1
More Revolutions
Cuba (1959): caused by growing gap b/w rich and poor, led to est. of communism under Fidel Castro, collapse of SU in 1991 --> loss of financial backer --> econ. decline

Iran (1979): resistance to modern/western influence with new Shah, move toward strict Islamic fundamentalism, created tensions w/ US
Effects of Decolonization
Kwame Nkrumah
Led Ghana’s independence movement (formerly Br. Gold Coast)
used negotiations, boycotts, protests
established communist govt. as 1st prime minister
overthrown by CIA coup in 1972 (containment policy)

Ghana
South Africa
Background: Dutch and Br. fought over diamonds & gold in SA in 1800s, white minority ruled African natives

Apartheid: 1948, policy of racial separation

Nelson Mandela: protested apartheid using nonviolence, arrested in 1962, released in 1990

1994: all races allowed to participate in election for 1st time, Mandela elected as president, apartheid ended, new constitution written
- Tribal wars (thanks to Berlin Conference)
- Illiteracy
- Disease
- Depleted resources
- Extreme poverty
- Famine
- Genocides (ex- Rwanda)
Algeria
After WW2, Arabs and Berbers lead violent rebellion for independence from FR

1million+ leave Algeria and migrate to France
1947: BR grants independence to India and Pakistan after decades of nonviolent protest led by Gandhi

Problems: E and W Pakistan divided --> mass migrations led to riots and murders, fights over Kashmir region, continued tensions b/w Muslims and Hindus
(now called Bangladesh)
Kashmir
Divided Pakistan
A long, long time ago- Hebrews lived in Palestine until Roman persecution led to diaspora

Muslims control the region from 600s-1919 (end of Otto. Empire)

After WW2, Zionists (Jewish nationalists) push for state of Israel --> created by UN in 1948 --> Muslim Palestinians angry about being forced off of their land--> formed PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)

Conflict has led to wars, terrorism, violence

Discrimination against Muslims in Israel (apartheid)

OPEC created in 1960, has given Arab countries leverage in their fight for Palestinian control
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