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6 Am Pageant

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by

Ernesto Sanchez

on 11 February 2015

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Transcript of 6 Am Pageant

American Pageant:
Chapter 6

II. New France Fans Out
1. New France’s (Canada) one valuable resource was the beaver.
2. Beaver hunters were known as the coureurs de bois (runners of the woods)
named Baton Rouge (red stick), Terre Haute (high land), Des Moines (some monks) and Grand Teton.
3. The French
voyageurs,
transported furs, also recruited Indians to hunt for beaver (video)
Indians were decimated by European diseases
negatively affected by alcohol
beaver population was nearly extinguished.
IV. George Washington Inaugurates War with France

1. The Ohio River Valley (ORV) became a battleground among the Spanish, British, and French.
fertile land.
2. In 1754, Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, sent 21 year-old George Washington to the Ohio country as a lieutenant colonel in command of about 150 Virginia minutemen.
GOAL: secure claims by Washington's family and others in ORV
Encountered Frenchmen in the forest ~40 miles from Fort Duquesne, opened fire, & kill French leader
Later, the French returned and surrounded Washington’s hastily constructed
Fort Necessity. A
fter a 10-hour siege, Washington and his men surrender
permitted to march his men away with the full honors of war
BRITISH RESPONSE: Deport 4,000 Acadians from Nova Scotia in 1755 (some ended up in Louisiana)
V. Global War and Colonial Disunity

1. The
fourth
of these wars between empires started in America
unlike King William's, Queen Anne's, and King George's Wars
2. The
French and Indian War
(AKA
Seven Years’ War
) began with Washington’s battle against the French in the ORV.
3.
England and Prussia
vs.
France, Spain, Austria, and Russia
.
4. In Germany (Prussia),
Fredrick the Great
won his title of “Great” by repelling French, Austrian, and Russian armies, even though he was badly outnumbered.
aided by
London gold
Fighting in
Germany drained France
and
weakened
its efforts in N.A.
VI. Braddock’s Blundering and Its Aftermath

1. In the beginning, British send 60 year-old Gen. Edward Braddock
leads a bunch of inexperienced soldiers with slow, heavy artillery
2. The British were ambushed by French using “Indian-tactics”
Braddock is killed
An Energetic and fearless Washington
3. Frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina felt the Indian wrath
scalping widespread
$50 woman's, $130 warrior's
4. Attack on Canada in 1756 focused on attack strategic wilderness posts (mistake)
defeat after defeat piled up.
VII. Pitt’s Palms of Victory

1. In 1757, William Pitt, the “Great Commoner,” became a leader in the London government and later earned the title of “Organizer of Victory”
scaled back attacks on the French West Indies, which sapped British strength
concentrated on Quebec-Montreal (supply routes to New France).
He replaced old, cautious officers with younger, daring officers
VIII. Restless Colonists

1. The colonists
experienced war
firsthand and come out victors
very
confident
.
myth of British invincibility had been shattered
2.
Friction
developed between British officers and the colonial “boors.”
British
refused to recognize
any American officers above the rank of captain
Americans believed that they were
equals
with the Redcoats
IX. War’s Aftermath

1. The French are defeated
colonists could now
roam freely
less dependent upon Great Britain.
Spain was eliminated from Florida
Indians could no longer play the European powers against each other
Great Britain is now firmly in control
X. Makers of America: The French

1.Louis XIV envisioned a French empire in North America, but defeats in 1713 and 1763 snuffed that out.

2.The first French to leave Canada were the
Acadians
.
The British demanded residents swear allegiance to Britain or leave.
In 1755, they were
forcefully
expelled from the region.
3. Samuel de Champlain
soldier and explorer
known as the “Father of New France.”
friendly relations with the neighboring Huron Indians
helped them defeat the Iroquois w/
lightning sticks
Effect: Pushed the Iroquois to ally with the British; hampers French efforts to control the Ohio Valley later.
4. Unlike English colonists, French colonists didn’t immigrate to NA in large numbers.
peasants were too poor
Huguenots were not allowed to leave
5. New France, autocratic, under direct control of king
few protections (no trial by jury, representation)
Carribean island colonies favored
2. The War of Jenkins’s Ear (1739)
English Captain, Robert Jenkins's ear is cut off by a Spanish commander, for raiding Spanish ships
Jenkins presents ear to Parliament
outraged & declare war
confined to the Caribbean Sea and Georgia.
Merged with the
War of Austrian Succession
and came to be called King George’s War in America.
France allied itself with Spain
England’s troops, with New Englander's help, captured the reputed impregnable fortress of
Cape Breton Island
(Fort
Louisbourg
).
Peace terms,
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
, gave Louisbourg back to France
outraged the colonists, who feared the strategic fort
Cements British claims to
Georgia
Ends with
5. Many Americans wanted the American colonies to unite
strength
6. In 1754, seven of the 13 colonies met in Albany, NY, for an inter-colonial congress, known as the
Albany Congress
.
A month before, Ben Franklin had published his famous “
Join or Die
” cartoon featuring a snake in pieces, symbolizing the colonies.
Franklin helped unite the colonists in Albany
But the
plan failed
Colonies were
reluctant to give up their sovereignty
or power.
Still, it was a first step toward
unity
.
2. In 1758, Louisbourg fell and the New France vine began to whither as supplies dwindled.
3.
Battle of Quebec (1759)
32 year-old
James Wolfe
met French troops led by French Commander
Marquis de Montcalm
Both men mortally wounded and die
French defeated and Quebec surrendered.
4. Montreal fell in 1760
last time French flags would fly on American soil.
5. In the Peace Treaty at Paris in 1763…
France
kicked
out
of North America.
British
got
Canada
and the land all the way to the Mississippi River.
The
French
allowed to
keep
several small, but valuable,
sugar islands
in the West Indies and two never-to-be-fortified
islets
, or small islands, in the
Gulf of St. Lawrence
for fishing stations.
France gives Louisiana to Spain
to compensate for Spain’s losses
6. Great Britain took its place as the leading naval power in the world, and a great power in North America.
3. Brits were concerned about
American smuggling
with
enemy
traders during the war
in the last year of the war, British
forbade

exports
of all
supplies

from New England
to the middle colonies.
4. Many American colonists
refused to
help
fight
the
French

This changed when Pitt offered to reimburse them.
5. American colonists found they had
a lot in common
(
language, tradition, ideals
) and barriers of disunity began to disappear
2. In 1763, Ottawa
Chief Pontiac
led a few French-allied tribes in a bloody campaign through the Ohio Valley
The British quickly and cruelly retaliated after being caught off guard.
one commander ordered
blankets infected with
smallpox
to be distributed
to
Native Americans.
The violence convinced the British to station troops along the frontier.
3. Land-hungry Americans wanted to settle west of the Appalachians
Parliament issued the
Proclamation of 1763
prohibiting any settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians.
meant to work out the Indian problem by drawing the “
out-of-bounds” line
.
colonists saw as another form of oppression from a far away country.
Americans asked, “
Didn’t we just fight a war to win that land?

3.The Acadians fled to the French colony of
Louisiana
settled among
bayous
planted sugar cane and sweet potatoes
practiced Roman
Catholicism
.
They spoke a
French dialect
that came to be called
Cajun
.
Married the Spanish, French, and Germans.
Remained
isolated
until the 1930s
4.In 1763, French settlers in Quebec began heading
toward New England
because of poor harvests
hoped to return
to Canada someday.
preserved their Roman
Catholicism
and their
language
.
5.Today,
Quebec
is the only
sign of French
existence that once ruled.
French
culture
is
strong
there in the form of road signs, classrooms, courts, and markets.
I. France Finds a Foothold in Canada

1. Like England and Holland, France was a latecomer in the race for colonies.
In the 1500s faced not only foreign wars, but also domestic problems, particularly religious wars.
Huguenots (followed John Calvin's teachings)
1572, St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (10,000)
1584 Henry of Navarre becomes king
1598, the Edict of Nantes was issued by King Henry IV
allowed limited toleration to the French Huguenots.
2. In 1643, King Louis XIV became king
took an interest in overseas colonies.
In 1608, France had established Quebec
Overlooking St. Lawrence River
Map Activity:
Label all 13 colonies
The Great Lakes
The Appalachian Mountains
The Proclamation Line of 1763
Fort Duquesne
Fort Necessity
Objectives:
1. Explain what caused the great contest for North America between Britain and France.
2. Describe France’s colonial settlements and their expansion, and compare New France with Britain’s colonies in North America.
3. Evaluate why the French Empire ultimately so much less successful than either the Spanish or the British Empires?
Fort Pitt
Quebec
Montreal
Detroit
Boston
New York City
Objectives:
• To understand the role that George Washington played in inaugurating the French and Indian War.
• Be able to describe how William Pitt’s reforms turned the tide of the French and Indian War.
• To understand the French and Indian War had a significant impact on the American colonists.
Objectives:
•To understand the role that George Washington played in inaugurating the French and Indian War.
•Be able to describe how William Pitt’s reforms turned the tide of the French and Indian War.
•To understand the French and Indian War had a significant impact on the American colonists.
III. The Clash of Empires

1. King William’s War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713)
Earliest clashes between France and England in
NA
British colonists vs.
coureurs de bois
Both sides employed indian allies.
torch and tomahawk
guerrilla warfare
neither side considered America important enough to use real troops
French Indian allies ravaged Schenectady, New York, and Deerfield, Mass.
The British failed to capture Quebec and Montreal, but did temporarily take Port Royal in Acadia.
The peace deal in
Utrecht 1713
Ended the War of Spanish Succession or Queen Anne’s War (off shoot of King William’s War)
Gave Acadia (renamed Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay
to

England
, pinching the French settlements by the St. Lawrence
Britain gained limited trading rights with Spanish America, but smuggling rampant to avoid revenue authorities.
Led to generation of peace and
France: Huguenot Persecution
Roman Catholic forces attacking a group of Huguenot worshipers in France, c. 1570.

What are your thoughts? Is there anything wrong with what's happening?
4. French Catholic missionaries, led by Jesuits worked to convert Indians.
5. Antoine Cadillac founded Detroit (“city of straits”) in 1701 to stop English settlers from pushing into the Ohio River Valley
6.
Louis
iana was founded, in 1682, by Robert de La Salle, to halt Spanish expansion into the area near the Gulf of Mexico.
Three years later, returned and landed in Spanish Texas
faced pirates, hostile indians, poor navigation, and a shipwreck
murdered by his mutinous men in 1687
In 1717 New Orleans founded to guard mouth of the Mississippi River
Robert de la Salle
First to navigate Mississippi from end to end.
7. The fertile Illinois country, where the French established forts and trading posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes, became the garden of France’s North American empire.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
*
Family experienced
high rate of infant mortality
half of the children failing to reach age one (compared with 80 percent survival at that time in Spanish villages).

Charles II was short and severely disabled:
weakness
intestinal problems
sporadic hematuria (blood in urine)
impotence/infertility explained by two genetic disorders,
combined pituitary hormone deficiency
distal renal tubular acidosis (decreased kidney function

The probability that an individual would inherit two recessive traits would be extremely low, but inbreeding made that much more likely.
Salutary Neglect
privileges granted to a surrendering force, as of marching out of their camp or entrenchments with all their arms and with their colors flying.
supreme power especially over a body politic or freedom from external control: autonomy
“Carry this home to the King, your master, whom, if he were present, I would serve in like fashion.”
Did it work?
Québec History 16: Battle of Ste-Foy and Pontiac
Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West
unrefined or ill-mannered people
no majors, colonels, or generals
In 1765, an estimated one thousand wagons rolled through the town of Salisbury, North Carolina, on their way “up west” in defiance of the Proclamation.
4. The British refused to accept this blatant disobedience by the Americans
The stage was set for the Revolutionary War.
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