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Anatomy and Physiology Unit Summary

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Miranda Hyatt

on 7 August 2014

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Transcript of Anatomy and Physiology Unit Summary

Unit 10: The Immune System
The function of the immune system is to protect the body from pathogens. There are three main types of cells that help do this:
B Lymphocytes- Produces antibodies to attach to the bacteria or virus.
T Lymphocytes- Does many things including preventing uncontrolled immune responses, recognize future responses, and killing infected body cells.
Macrophages- "Eat" infected and dead body cells.
Lymph is fluid that is leaked from your tissues and contains white blood cells. When lymph is leaked it is absorbed by lymph vessels and travels through the lymph nodes. The lymph is then passed onto collecting ducts, where it will eventually join back up with the circulatory system.
- Miranda Hyatt, masterful human body systems illustrator.

Unit 14: The Endocrine System
The main purpose of the endocrine system is to release hormones throughout the body. The main gland that does this is the pituitary gland, which hangs from the brain. The functions of the pituitary gland are to:
Control other endocrine glands
Produce hormones
The pituitary gland is also separated into anterior and posterior regions that each do different things.
Anterior pituitary- Produces the growth hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Also stimulates the thyroid gland,
Posterior pituitary- Produces oxytocin and the antidiuretic hormone, which controls the amount of urine you produce.
In addition to the pituitary gland there are other glands and organs that are a part of the endocrine system these are the:
Thyroid gland- Produces trilodothyronine, which increases the metabolic rate and calcitonin, which lowers the amount of calcium in the blood stream.
Adrenal glands- Glands that sits atop of the kidneys.
Adrenal medulla- Produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Adrenal cortex- Produces 3 classes of hormones including gluticocorticoids, mineralocorticords, and androgenic hormones.
Pancreas- Contains the Islets of Langerhans, which secretes insulin and glucagon to control the body's blood sugar level.
Unit 7: The Digestive System
Digestion- The body's process of breaking down food into smaller pieces that can be used by the rest of the body.
The breakdown of food begins in the mouth with saliva. Saliva begins breaking down carbohydrates immediately. From the mouth the food enters the esophagus where it is moved by slow muscle contractions, called peristalsis. Once food reaches the stomach enzymes and digestive acids turn to food into a mush substance. From there the food travels into the small intestine. The first part of the small intestine is called the duoduenum, which receives bile from the gallbladder and pancreas to break down the food. The small intestine absorbs nutrients in the food for the body to use. Anything left over after the process through the small intestine is passed into the large intestine, where last bits of nutrients are absorbed. Anything that the body cannot use is then excreted.
Unit 12: The Nervous System
The function of the nervous system is to:
Detect changes inside and outside of the body
Make decisions based on information
Stimulate muscles to respond to this information
The nervous system is categorized into the
Central nervous system-Composed of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system- Composed of all of the nervous tissue in the body.
There are also two parts of the peripheral nervous system which includes the:
Somatic nervous system-Connects the brain and the brain stem to sensory organs and muscles.
Autonomic nervous system-Controls actions of the body such as heartbeat, breathing, and the digestive process.
To protect the brain and spinal cord soft layers of tissues, called meninges, cover the brain under the bones of the skull. These layers include the:
Dura mater-Outermost layer of meninges.
Arachnoid mater- Thin middle layer of meninges, contains no blood vessels.
Pia mater- Innermost layer of the meninges, lines the brain.

Anatomy and Physiology Units Summary
Unit 8: The Circulatory System
Unit 11: The Respiratory System
The respiratory system is responsible for bringing oxygen into the body and releasing carbon dioxide out of the body. In order for the lungs to expand and contract, the diaphragm expands and contracts.
The respiratory system is divided into two tracts:
Upper respiratory tract- Contains the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, and pharynx.
Lower respiratory tract- Contains the larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs.
Each cavity that air flows through progressively gets smaller so that dust and particles can be filtered out of the air. The bronchial tree within the lungs also follows this method. The bronchial tree begins with primary bronchi. The bronchi then thin down to bronchioles, which then thin down to alveolar ducts. Microscopic sacs at the end of the alveolar ducts, called alveoli, hold the filtered oxygen.
In the human body the right lung is larger than the left lung. This is due to the heart being centered slightly to the left. However, the right lung is shorter in length due to the slight upward curve of the diaphragm. To make up for this, the right lung is wider.
Unit 13: The Nervous System Continued
The autonomic nervous system is composed of two subunits. These subunits are based on different body situations.
Sympathetic- Controls the "fight or flight" response. This can be caused during emergencies or exercise, and causes increased heart and respiration rate. The increased heart and respiration rates upset homeostasis.
Parasympathetic- Controls the "rest and digest" response. This response uses less body energy and promotes digestion, the storage of energy, elimination of wastes, and promotes homeostasis.
Different lobes of the brain are responsible for different things. These lobes and functions include the:
Frontal lobe- Responsible for speech and memory.
Temporal lobe- Contains the primary auditory cortex responsible for hearing.
Parietal lobe- Contains the primary somatosensory cortex.
Occipital lobe- Contains the primary visual cortex responsible for seeing.
The corpus callosum is the major pathway that connects the two hemispheres of the brain. It is also responsible for information transfer.
Unit 15: The Excretory System
The urinary system's main function is to filter and reabsorb nutrients from the blood. To begin the process blood comes through the renal artery to the kidneys for filtration. Filtration occurs in a kidney nephron, which is a network of filtration tubes.
First unfiltered blood enters the glomerulus to be filtered and then moves through the proximal convolute tubule. The blood then goes through the loop of Henle and is passed into the distal convoluted tubule. From there the wastes of the blood are moved into the renal pelvis and down the ureters.
Unit 1:
Anatomy- The study of the structure of the human body.
Physiology- The study of how the structures of the body function together.
The six life processes that distinguish life from non-living things:
Unit 2:
The atom is the smallest unit of all matter. The parts of the atom include the proton and neutron, found in the nucleus of an atom, and electrons, which are found on the outside of the nucleus.
Cells are the smallest units of life. Human cells are composed of an outer plasma membrane, as well as internal organelles. These organelles include the:
Nucleus- Directs the functions of the cell.
Mitochondria- Gives power to the cell.
Ribosomes- Translates DNA to RNA, which allows for protein synthesis.
Golgi Body- Packages small particles of the cell into larger packages and then sends them to different parts of the cell.
Vacuole- Stores food and nutrients.

Unit 3:
The four types of tissue include:
Epithelial Tissue- The main function of epithelial tissue is to cover, not protect, the body. Our skin is made of epithelial cells that prevent bacteria from entering our bodies. This tissue heals very well and very fast.
Connective Tissue- Connects parts of the body together. Connective tissues are made up of extracellular matrices, which include non-living substances. The most abundant of these non-living substances found in extracellular matrices is calcium.
Nervous Tissue- Tissue that composes the nervous system. While it is found all over the body, the largest portion of it is found within the brain and the brain stem.
Muscular Tissue- Muscular tissue makes up the muscles of the body. There are three main types:
Skeletal Muscle- Composes body muscles.
Cardiac Muscle- Only found in the heart.
Smooth Muscle- Found in the stomach and other internal organs.
Unit 4: The Integumentary System
The Integumentary System has 6 main functions:
Acts as both a physical barrier to bacteria and a chemical barrier by adjusting the skin's pH level.
Regulates body temperature.
Detects changes in pressure.
Regulates metabolic functions such as Vitamin D synthesis.
Acts as a blood reservoir
Excretes body wastes.
Contains two main layers with each layer having sub-layers.
The Epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. It is composed of the
stratum corneum
stratum lucidum on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basale, which lies against the Dermis.
The dermis is the under layer of the skin and is composed of the:
Papillary layer
Reticular layer
Unit 5: The Skeletal System
The function of the skeleton is to:
Protect the body
Move the body
Make blood
Store minerals
The two main divisions of the skeletal system are the
Axial Skeleton- Composed of the torso bones, such as the sternum, ribcage, skull bones, and the vertebral column.
Appendicular Skeleton- Composed of all of the appendage bones, such as the femur, tibia, fibula radius, and ulna.
There are all sorts of bones in the body. Some are long bones, which are strong and large. Some are short bones which are smaller and less dense. Some are flat, and some are irregular.
Joints are places in the body in which bones connect. Sutures are an example of a joint, but are immovable. The six types of movable joints include the gliding joint, the hinge joint, the pivot joint, the condyloid joint, the saddle joint, and the ball-and-socket joint.
Unit 6: The Muscular System
The three types of muscle include:
Skeletal- Skeletal muscles are voluntary and allow for body movement. These muscles are found all over our bodies.
Smooth- Smooth muscle is found in the esophagus, stomach, and other digestive organs. Smooth muscle is involuntary and allows for peristalsis, or the gradual movement of our food throughout our digestive system.
Cardiac- Cardiac muscle is only found within the heart and is involuntary.
In order for muscles to contract, a motor neuron has to send a neurotransmitter to instruct the muscle to contract. The combination of the motor neuron and the muscle it controls is called a motor unit.
When a muscle contracts it uses ATP to fuel the c contraction. When a muscle contracts but there is no ATP to use a muscle cramp occurs.
Myofibrils, or long contractile tissues found in muscle, has two main types of protein filaments that allows it to contract. The thick protein filament is called myosin, while the thin protein filament is called actin.
The path of food is as follows:
Mouth -> Pharynx -> Esophagus -> Stomach -> small intestine -> Duodenum -> Coiled Jejunum -> Ileum -> large intestine: cecum, -> appendix, -> Ascending Colon -> Transverse Colon -> Descending Colon -> Sigmoid Colon -> Rectum -> Anal Canal -> anus

In the human body blood is essential for life and found in all body tissues. Blood is responsible for many things, such as the transportation of oxygen and nutrients, the break down of dead body cells, and protecting the body from bacteria invasions. The average adult has 5 liters of blood.
Blood is composed of:
Red blood cells- Responsible for carrying oxygen and nutrients.
White blood cells- Breaks down dead body cells and fights pathogens.
Blood platelets- Responsible for blood clotting.
Plasma- Responsible for carrying nutrients and vitamins.
There are also many different types of white blood cells. These include:
Neutrophils- Makes up 40%-80% of all white blood cells.
Lymphocytes-Makes up 20%-40% of all white blood cells.
Monocytes- Makes up 2%-10% of all white blood cells.
Eosinophils- Makes up 1%-6% of all white blood cells.
Basophils-Makes up 1%-2% of all white blood cells.
There are four main blood types that contain specific receptor proteins on their surface. There are also specific antigens and antibodies associated with each of the types These types are:
Type A- Associated with antigen A and antibody B.
Type B- Associated with antigen B and antibody A.
Type AB- Associated with antigen A and antigen B.
Type O- Associated with antibody A and antibody B.
Type O-Negative blood is the universal blood donor while type AB-Positive blood is the universal recipient.
Unit 9: The Cardiovascular System
The heart is one of the most important organs in the human body is responsible for moving blood throughout the body. The heart is also responsible for blood oxygenation.
The four chambers of the heart include the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium, and the left ventricle. The heart also contains four valves. The tricuspid valce lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The pulmonary semi lunar valve lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary artery then sends blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen. The mitral valve lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle. The aortic semi lunar valve lies between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta. The blood that goes through the ascending aorta then travels to the rest of the body.
The heart is composed of three layers of tissues:
Epicardium- The outer layer of the heart; mainly composed of connective tissue.
Myocardium- The middle layer of the heart; composed of cardiac muscle.
Endocardium- The inner layer of the heart.
Unit 16: The Reproductive System
Unit 17: Forensics
The reproductive system is an important part of the human body and ensures that the human race does not go extinct. These systems are different in males and females.
Vagina- Female sex organ.
Cervix- Opening to uterus.
Uterus- Organ to house developing fetus.
Fallopian tubes- Transports ovum from ovaries to uterus. Also the site of fertilization.
Ovaries- Store ovum.
The three tissue layers of the uterus are:
Perimetrium- Outer layer
Myometrium- Muscular middle layer
Endometrium- Inner layer that sheds during menstruation.

Penis- Male sex organ.
Testes- Produces mature sperm.
Vas Deferens- Transports sperm from testes to seminal vesicle.
Epididymus- Holds immature sperm.
Seminal Vesicle- Provides sperm with energy.
Prostate Gland- Adds lubrication fluid to semen.
Both have urethra's
Forensics describes a broad range of scientific methods to identify what happened at a crime scene. Anything that an be used to determine what happened is called evidence. There are three main types of evidence:
Testimonial- Testimonial evidence is any witnessed account of a crime.
Physical- Physical evidence is any material items that can provide information.
Trace- Trace evidence is evidence that is found in small but measurable amounts, such as fingerprints and hair.
There are many different things that can help piece together what happened at a crime scene. Some of these are paint, explosives, glass, dust, firearms, fluids, and blood.
Kidney Nephron
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