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Famous Astronomers

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Nicole Ando

on 26 May 2011

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Transcript of Famous Astronomers

Famous Astronomers Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) He was a Danish astronomer who became famous by creating precise astronomical measurements of the solar system and more than 700 stars. Bibliography One of his greater discoveries was in 1572 when he found a supernova near the Cassiopeia constellation. Right after this, the king of Denmark and Norway, Frederick II, offered funds to Brahe to build a observatory on an island called Hven (now Ven). So Brahe accepted this, and in 1576 built the observatory which is now known as the castle of Uranienborg ("fortress of heavens"). (1564-1642) He was an Italian physicist and astronomer, was greatly remembered for some very important contributions to astronomy and physics. He was also known for his battle against the authorities for freedom of inquiry. He built a telescope, which he was able to discovery craters on the moon with, stars in the milky way, and the four largest satellites of Jupiter. He had also observed the phases of Venus by this time. Claudius Ptolemy He was probably one of the most famous astronomers and mathematicians, even though most of his theories were later proved wrong or incorrect. Yet he laid down the foundation for future astronomers and mathematicians to take. His theories dominated the scientific field until the 16th century. Ptolemy's most famous work, Almagest, contained geometric theory which mathematically explained the motions and positions of planets, sun, and the moon against stars that did not move. At first he began to accept that the earth was at the center of the universe, but later studying, he began to believe that the earth and planets movied in cirlces around much larger objects. He created the term epicycle, which was used to describe the circular paths that objects in space moved around. He was one of the first to create the horoscopes, applying astronomy to astrology in his book Tetrabiblos. He wrote two other famous books; Geography which charted the world as known at the time, and Optics, which explored the properties of light. Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) She was one of the first famous female astronomers. Her love for astronomy began when her father began maintaining a small observatory. The accomplishment that brought her international recognizition was when she discovered a telescopic comet in October of 1847. The year after she became the first women elected at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Afterwards she became professor of astronomy at Vassar College in 1865 and stayed there until she retired in 1888. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) He was a German astronomy and natrual philosophere who was known for his ability in formulating and verifying the three laws of planetary motion, which are now known as Keplers's Laws. When Kepler left Tubingen to go to Graz, Austria, he began to work on a complex geometric hypothesis to explain the distance of planetary orbits, which he mistakingly took as circular. During this he also proposed that the sun emitted a force that inversely diminishes the distance and pushes the planets around their orbits. Using all of this information he wrote a book called Mysterium Comosgraphicum(Cosmographic Mystery) in 1596. From 1594 to 1600 Kepler was the chair of astronomy and mathematics the University of Graz, until he became Tycho Brahe's assistant at the observatory near Prague. Nicholas Copernicus (1473 -1543) He was a Polish astronomer, well known for his Copernican theory. His theory stated that sun rest near the center of the universe, and the earth, which spun daily on its axis, revolved annually around the sun. Now, this process is known as helocentric, or suncentered, system. During the Janurary of 1497 he bean to study canon law at University of Bologna while living with a mathematician, Domenico Maria de Novara. Novara sparked Copernicus' interest in geography and astronomy, and the final climax of it came when the two watched the occultation(eclipse by the moon) of the star Aldebaran on March 9, 1497. Clyde Thombaugh (1906-1997) He is well in the astronomer hall of fame. He was the final discoverer of planet pluto after many years of research. When he was 22 he had a home-made 9 inch reflector that he used to makde drawings of Saturn and Jupiter from. After sending his pictures to Lowell Observatory for critique, he was immediately offered a position as astronomical photographer. Later, his research gained him another position as researcher, and his goal was to find the infamous Planet X, which would later be Pluto. Finally, on March 12, 1930, Pluto was discovered. He discovered a comet, five open clusters, globular cluster, and a supercluster of galaxes stretching from Andromeda to Perseus. Created by ThinkQuest Team 23830 . - Famous Astronomers
http://library.thinkquest.org/23830/astronomers.htm
August 28, 1998. Galileo Galilei Thanks for watching. By: Nicole Ando & Rain Baker
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