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History of English language
Transcript of History of English language
The Romans 100 a.d 500 a.d
They ruled Britain peacefully for four centuries. They return to Rome to defend her. After they were subjected by the four invaders of England. the Germanic tribes: The Angles,Saxons and Jutes. they brought the Angle-ish into the island.
The influence of the Vikings 850 a.d
Danish kings ruled England the first half of the 11th century.
The vikings were Germanic but their language did not replace Old English just influenced and change it.
Introduction of some Scandinavian words.
The cave-dwellers- original inhabitants of England
The Iberians the first invaders
The Angle-ish Language
It was establish in England by about 6oo B.C. It serves as the language of the country for many centuries with its different dialects.
The influx of Latin and Classic Elements
The christian missionaries brought Latin and classical element to the island. They converted the Islando to Christianity which help to unify the language.
Celts 500 B.C 100 a.d
The Celts came from the eastern Europe.They drove the older Iberian culture into the mountainous areas and establish their own society.
250,000 years ago
Middle English Period 1350-1550
Official tongue and language of literature of the land
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.
The Great Period of Growth and Change
Transition from Middle English to Modern English
1) Great Vowel Shift 16th century ( 1550)
The Normans's conquest under
William the Conqueror
" The Battle of Hastings" (1066)
The Renaissance 1400- 1600
Expansion of new words from all languages they met.
Men adopted new words from all languages they met.
English lexicon grow
The Romance languages
16 th century
words arrived from the new world
words passed from Dutch into English
There exists a contribution of German to English as Scandinavian
7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603
Native American Indian words
Language Indians spoke
Names taken from Indian Languages
British establish 19th century
September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956
Mencken is known for The American Language, a multi-volume study of how the English language is spoken in the United States
Words come from Sanskrit Indo Irabian branch of Proto-Indo-European.
19 th century
words taken from German Portuguese and Dutch
Dr Samuel Johnson created the first dictionary with 43.000 words.
He was considered the father of the English etymology.
1950 Classical scientific
Industrial changes with all kinds of machines gad set and doodas.
science discover a million of objects
dictionaries only appeared with only modern scientific terms
Afro American 18 th century 19th century.
Afro American words came to American English through black slaves.
African Languages brought changes in grammar and pronunciation to the language.
The Mark Twain's book the adventures of Huckberry Finn was published.
African American speech was documented
Variety of Languages
Black vernacular English
AAVE (African American Vernacular English
Mixture of elements derived from german vocabulary added from Hebrew and From Slavic.
Yiddish was spoken at first as a vernacular in Eastern European Jewish communities
This is the most fertile source of neologism is the mix of the best part of other languages
Neither the cavemen, nor the Iberians
gave any English word.
We do not know the languages they
The contribution to English
began with the Celts.
The Anglos, Saxons and the Jutes
-Before the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
invaded England, they had developed
a common dialect of West Germanic.
-This language was imported into Britain,
there it was unified and standardized.
-All Englishmen spoke the same language
2) Renaissance in England (Dark Ages)
-15th- 16th centuries.
-The establishment of the printing press.
-Interests in Classical civilizations, in art,
and in learning.
-Classical words into English.
3) Discovery of the New World (America)
-By Christopher Columbus (1492)
-Wave of discovery and competition among
the principal nations of Europe.
-Abundance of new, unknown, unnamed things.
4) Elizabethan Literary Age
-Second half of the 16th century.
-High level of literature and
(one of the great writers
of this time).
5) British Imperialism
-18th and 19th centuries
-Major contributing factor to the
growth of the English Language.
-In America, thousands of Native
American words where incorporated.
-In India (Sanskrit), Australia,
and Africa happen the same.
-Words incorporated since the beginning
of the Industrial Revolution (steam engine).
-When an invention needs a name:
1) The name comes from the conscious
or subconscious mind of English people.
2) From the Classical or other roots
(telephone, automobile, etc.)
-They were Scandinavian race.
-They were for centuries Frenchfied
-Their dialect of French was completely different
to old English, so for hundred years of more the two languages existed in England
-Higher classes- French/ lower classes- English.
The Normans 1066
-Words adopted from French show the relationship between the French rulers and the English
Subordinates or religious concerns (noble, servant, communion, and convent).
-Norman masters and Angle-Saxons servants had very little communication with each other.
-Different names for animals:
Swine (A-S)-Pork (French)
Sheep (A-S)-mutton (F)
After the Normans conquest
For reasons we do not know people start
pronouncing words differently.
Occupations, war, and trade (camp, street, wall).
-Only a few words passed from Celtic into Anglo-Saxon, referred to geographical features (Down (hill) Thames, Axe (rivers), London (city)).
Latin words the Anglo-Saxons let stand
Christian monks aided the progress of the English language in two ways:
1) They taught the uncivilized Anglo-Saxons
to read and write, and to be interested in
learning in general.
2) They gave them a lot of new words
to use (candle, apostle, minister, pope,
cheese, ton, kitchen, pillow).
Cavemen' s and The Iberians' s Contribution
-Both Celtic and Latin were spoken in England in different places among different social classes in the 6th century.
-Celtic language did not cease to exist after the invasion of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.
-Celtic contributed with place names: Chester, Gloucester, Davenport, Liverpool.
-Before the Romans conquered France
(1st century B.C), its inhabitants were the Franks.
-Frankish language was absorbed by Latin,
but original Frankish words survived and
became part of the new French language.
-The effect on English by the Danes is not so great.
-Hundreds of Danish words came into English, but the structure of English was not disturbed.
-Danes accepted the Anglo-Saxon language, in spite of a Danish king was on the throne of England.
-Words that came into English from Danish are: anger, call, fellow, hit, husband, sk- words (Scandinavian origin)
The Danes and the Danish Language