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Architecture

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jonathan silver

on 19 March 2015

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Transcript of Architecture

Gothic art By Jonathan Silver
Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris
Where Does Gothic art Come From?
"It is traditionally held that Gothic art makes its debut with the patron age of the Abbot Suger, of the monastery of St. Denis near Paris. Suger ruled from 1122 to 1151, and during the period of his abbacy a start was made on the rebuilding of the abbey church ( Wiki pedia)."
What is Gothic art?
'Gothic' art describes the period in which this style of art was made, which is some where in time between the Romanesque and the Renaissance eras.
Helped to bring Gothic art to Italy
Simone Martini (c. 1284 – 1344) was an Italian painter born in Siena. He was a major figure in the development of early Italian painting and greatly influenced the development of the International Gothic style(Wikipedia)."
"Architecture was the dominant expression of the Gothic Age. Emerging in the first half of the 12th
century from Romanesque antecedents, Gothic architecture continued well into the 16th century in
northern Europe, long after the other arts had embraced the Renaissance. Although a vast number of
secular monuments were built in the Gothic style, it was in the service of the church, the most prolific
builder of the Middle Ages, that the new architecture evolved and attained its fullest realization (.muhlenberg.edu)."
WORK CITED
Gothic art is what we thin k of whenever we see Cathedrals, and you wouldn't be that far off....
Gothic art By Jonathan Silver
Simone Martini
"Polyptych of Santa Caterina" (Pisa Polyptych) 1319. Now located in Museo Nazionale di San Matteo of the same city (Web Gallery of Art)."

"Altar of St Louis of Toulouse"
Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples (Web Gallery of Art)."
"Simone Martini “Equestrian effigy of Guidoriccio da Fogliano, Fresco Palazzo Pubblico, Siena 1330 (Web Gallery of Art)."
"Crucifix"
Church of Misericordia, San Casciano (Florence) 1321-25 (Web Gallery of Art)."
Nicola Pisano
"Nicola Pisano, (born c. 1220, Apulia?—died 1278/84, Pisa?), sculptor whose work, along with that of his son Giovanni and other artists employed in their workshops, created a new sculptural style for the late 13th and the 14th centuries in Italy (Encyclopædia Britannica)."
Italian sculptor
“Apocalyptic Christ, relief from the pulpit” 1265-68 (Web Gallery of Art)."
Part of the Pulpit

1260
Marble, height 465 cm
Baptistry, Pisa (Web Gallery of Art)."
Marbel Staues
"Nicola Pisano was an Italian sculptor whose work is noted for its classical Roman sculptural style. Pisano is sometimes considered to be the founder of modern sculpture (Wikipedia)."
Fonte Maggiore
1278
Bronze and marble
Piazza 4 Novembre, Perugia (Web Gallery of Art)."
Fidelity
1260
Marble, height 58 cm
Baptistry, Pisa
Part of the pulpit in the baptistry in Pisa (Web Gallery of Art)."
Nicola Pisano (and workshop): Last Judgement (detail), marble relief from the pulpit in Siena Cathedral, 1265–8; photo credit: Scala/Art Resource, NY (Web Gallery of Art)."
The Age of Transition 1140-1240


ARCHITECTURE
"The transitional period opens in the middle of a development. Certain architectural features such as the ribbed vault and the pointed arch were already being employed by architects. Exposed flying buttress was still unacceptable, but the principle of the flying buttress was already known, and such buttressing was concealed beneath the roofs of tribune galleries. The history of this period is one of gragual realization of the potentialities of these features and of increasing expertise in their use (Martindale, Andrew )."
"Forget the association of the word "Gothic" to dark, haunted houses, Wuthering Heights, or ghostly pale people wearing black nail polish and ripped fishnets. The original Gothic style was actually developed to bring sunshine into people's lives, and especially into their churches. To get past the accrued definitions of the centuries, it's best to go back to the very start of the word Gothic, and to the style that bears the name (Valerie Spanswick )."
Gothic windows at Gloucester Cathedral.
Early Gothic arches, Southwell Minster.
Nave of Salisbury Cathedral.
Stained glass: history and technique
"During the Gothic period and the Renaissance (1100s–1500s) stained glass was one of the foremost techniques of painting practiced in Europe. It may seem surprising to call stained glass a form of painting, but in fact it is. Look closely at the image here and note that the surfaces of each piece of glass are painted in a wide range of dark tones. One of the most widespread forms of painting, stained glass inspired the lives of the faithful through religious narratives in churches and cloisters, celebrated family and political ties in city halls, and even decorated the windows of private houses (Khan Academy)."
"The Virgin and Saint John, from a Crucifixion, German, c. 1420, Dark brown vitreous paint, colored pot metal and clear glass, silver stain, H: 58.5 x W: 50 x D: 1 cm (23 1/16 x 19 11/16 x 3/8 in.) each (J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003.35)(Khan Academy)."
"Seraph, unknown French glass painter, working at Reims Cathedral, c. 1275–99, pot-metal and clear glass and black vitreous paint (J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003.28)(Khan Academy)."
"Imagine standing in a medieval church. As your eyes adjust to the darkness, you notice colored light streaming down from above.
Some of the most powerful art produced in the High Middle Ages were stained-glass cycles, or visual stories, in French cathedrals. Among the most famous of these is in Reims Cathedral, from which this arresting lunette (a half moon–shape) originally came. The seraph, one of the six-winged angels that were thought to stand in the presence of God, is frighteningly formal, with thick strokes of black vitreous paint used to render its commanding eyes and facial features. Vitreous paint is paint that contains tiny glass particles mixed in a liquid (Khan Academy)."
The Virgin and Child, Master of Klosterneuberg, Austrian, active about 1335, pot-metal and clear glass, black vitreous paint, and silver stain (J. Paul Getty Museum, 2003.32)(Khan Academy)."
Gothic Stained Glass
MAITANI, Lorenzo
Italian sculptor/architect (b. ca. 1255, Siena, d. 1330, Orvieto)
View of the Cathedral
1310-30
Photo
Duomo, Orvieto
Location Italy
The picture shows a detail of the 1st panel on the 1st pillar of the façade of the Orvieto Cathedral (Creation of the Birds and Fishes).
The detail shows the 4th, 5th and 6th panels on the 1st pillar of the façade of the Orvieto Cathedral.
The four pillars on the façade of the Orvieto Cathedral are covered with delicate and fine low-reliefs, made by artists, whose identity ís not absolutely certain. The best reliefs are usually attributed to Maitani. During the course of the 14th century the French influence strengthens in Italian sculpture. The closest approach in the Latin areas to Northern Gothic sculpture is probably provided by Lorenzo Maitani's reliefs decorating the façade of Orvieto Cathedral.

The picture shows the reliefs on the first pillar representing the events concerning the creation of the world and mankind, according to the book of Genesis. The creation of the animals, the murder of Abel and the representation of the first human activities. A branch of ivy, rising in the centre; keeps together and frames the stories divided into six panels one above the other (Web Gallery of Art)."
First Pillar: Stories from Genesis

1310-30
Marble
Duomo, Orvieto
Italy
The picture shows a detail of the 2nd panel on the 2nd pillar of the façade of the Orvieto Cathedral. The figures represent the prophets of the coming Messiah (left to right): an unidentified Greek, probably Aristotle, the Erythrean Sibyl, and a Hebrew prophet ((Web Gallery of Art)."
The four pillars on the façade of the Orvieto Cathedral are covered with delicate and fine low-reliefs, made by artists, whose identity ís not absolutely certain. The best reliefs are usually attributed to Maitani.

The picture shows the reliefs on the second pillar representing the Messianic Prophecies. In the centre, below, there is Abraham sleeping. An acanthus (Tree of Jesse), growing vertically, draws with its branches a series of circles, in which David, Salomon, Roboan, Abiah, Asah, Josaphat, the Virgin Mary and the Redeemer are represented ((Web Gallery of Art)."


Second Pillar: The Messianic Phrophesies

1310-30
Marble
Duomo, Orvieto
Second Pillar (detail)

1310-30
Stone
Duomo, Orvieto
"The sculpture is on the central west portal of the Orvieto Cathedral. It is clear from it that Maitani moved away from the heritage of the Pisani. Here is poise and grace, a delicacy and refinement which at this time could only have been imitated from France. The style of the Madonna seems to reflect the influence not of contemporary work but of the most elegant and reticent sculpture of the period 1230-1240 (Web Gallery of Art)."
Madonna and Child

1325-30
Marble
Duomo, Orvieto
"On a finely worked cornice which runs along the whole façade of the Orvieto Cathedral, come out some corbels supporting the symbols of the four Evangelists: the Angel (St Matthew), the Lion (St Mark), the Eagle (St John) and the Winged Bull (St Luke). Among these works, the Angel and the Eagle are usually attributed to Lorenzo Maitani (Web Gallery of Art)."
The Angel: Symbol of St Matthew

c. 1329
Bronze
Duomo, Orvieto
Giotto di Bondone (1266/7 – January 8, 1337)
Giotto. Raising of Drusiana. c.1313-14. Fresco. Peruzzi Chapel, Church of Santa Croce, Florence, Italy (

Maestà (Madonna with Angels and Saints)

1308-11
Tempera on wood, 214 x 412 cm
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena

DUCCIO di Buoninsegna
(b. ca. 1255, Siena, d. 1319, Siena)
Coronation of the Virgin

1308-11
Tempera on wood, 51,5 x 32 cm
Szépmûvészeti Múzeum, Budapest
This is a fragment of the panel of the central pediment of the Maestà (Web Gallery of Art)."
Duccio di Buoninsegna was the first great Sienese painter, and he stands in relation to the Sienese School as Giotto does to the Florentine; yet without the powerful naturalism that makes the art of Giotto so revolutionary. Rather, Duccio sums up the grave and austere beauty of centuries of Byzantine tradition and infuses it with a breath of the new humanity which was being spread by the new Orders of SS. Francis and Dominic (Web Gallery of Art)."
"Florentine painter and architect. He was already recognized by Dante as the leading artist of his day. His significance to the Renaissance can be gauged from the fact that not only the leaders in the early 15th-century transformation of the arts, such as Masaccio, but the key figures of the High Renaissance, such as Raphael and Michelangelo - one of whose early studies of Giotto's frescoes in the Peruzzi Chapel, Santa Croce, has survived - were still learning from him and partly founding their style on his example. The reasons for this are twofold. Firstly, his art is notable for its clear, grave, simple solutions to the basic problems of the representation of space and of the volume, structure, and solidity of 3-dimensional forms, and above all of the human figure. Secondly, he was a genius at getting to the heart of whatever episode from sacred history he was representing, at cutting it down to its essential, dramatic core, and at finding the compositional means to express its innermost spiritual meaning and its psychological effects in terms of simple areas of paint. His solutions to many of the problems of dramatic narrative were fundamental. They have subsequently been elaborated on in many ways, but they have never been surpassed (Web Gallery of Art)."
Between 1285 and 1308, the year the Sienese Maestà was commissioned, documented information exists only on the stained-glass window in Siena Cathedral. The large "oculus" on the wall of the apse is divided into nine compartments, of which five form a cross, while the other four occupy the remaining sectors. On the vertical arm is the story of the Virgin with the Coronation, the Assumption and the Burial. On the horizontal arm, from the left, are the patron saints Bartholomew, Ansano, Crescenzio and Savino. In the corner compartments are the four Evangelists with their names and symbols: in the top left St John and in the top right St Matthew; below are St Luke and St Mark (Web Gallery of Art)."


1288
Stained-glass, diameter: 700 cm
Duomo, Siena
Stained Glass Window
Definite Duccio authorship is ascribed to the Madonna of the Polyptych no. 28 in the Pinacoteca of Siena. The whole work is assigned to the production of the workshop (perhaps partly because of its very bad condition) since it reveals a considerable amount of help, valuable but extensive, in the side panels and the pinnacles (Web Gallery of Art)."



Polyptych No. 28

1300-05
Tempera on wood, 128 x 234 cm
Pinacoteca Nazionale, Siena
The picture shows a conjectural reconstruction of the front of Duccio's Maestà, with predella, pinnacles, and framing elements. The digitised reconstruction is by Lew Minter (Web Gallery of Art)."

Conjectural reconstrruction of the Maestà (front)

-
Digitized reconstruction of panel
"Simone’s earliest documented painting is the large fresco of the Maestà in the Sala del Mappamondo of the Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. The fresco depicts the enthroned Madonna and Child with angels and saints. This painting, which is signed and dated 1315 but was retouched by Simone himself in 1321, is a free version of Duccio’s Maestà of 1308–11. But the hierarchic structure of Duccio’s work has been replaced by a growing interest in illusionary perspective, and the abstract character and lack of setting of the earlier work has given way to concrete concepts: Simone’s Virgin, crowned and splendidly attired, is a Gothic queen who holds court beneath a Gothic canopy (britannica.com)."
(Photos Richard Spanswick)
Frescoes on the inside wall of the façade

1290s
Fresco
Upper Church, San Francesco, Assisi
"The frescoes illustrate the complex decorative program realized in the nave of the Upper Church. At the lower level two scenes from the Legend of St Francis can be seen, while above the Pentecost and Ascension of Christ is represented (Web Gallery of Art)."
Baroncelli Polyptych
c. 1334
Tempera on wood, 185 x 323 cm
Baroncelli Chapel, Santa Croce, Florence
"The original frame of this five-part altarpiece no longer survives. Beneath the central panel the altar is described as OPUS MAGISTRI JOCTI (Work of the Master Giotto). Many angels and saints have come together in a radiant assembly. They all want to be part of the coronation of the Mother of God by her son. In the rows at the front kneeling angels make music, in those at the back the looks and gestures of those present are oriented towards the central event (Web Gallery of Art)."
Baroncelli Polyptych

1300-02
Tempera on wood, 91x334 cm
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
This painting was originally on the high altar of the Badia in Florence. It is characterized by a language completely renewed in the 14th-century direction, which was to be at the basis of subsequent developments in Florentine and Italian painting (Web Gallery of Art)."
Badia Polyptych
Crucifix
1290-1300
Tempera on wood, 578 x 406 cm
Santa Maria Novella, Florence
In contrast to earlier representations of Christ on the Cross, such as those by his teacher Cimabue, Giotto emphasizes the earthly heaviness of the body: the head sinks deeply forward and the almost plump body sags. The human side of the Son of God is made clear. Mary and John look down sorrowfully from the horizontal ends of the cross at the dead Lord (Web Gallery of Art)."


The influences of Gothic art can still be seen inside of the surviving cathedrals. The view can see the architecture design that was used as well as the stained glass that gives light to the darkness of the cathedrals. Many of these oil paintings still hang in their original cathedrals and buildings.
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