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History of Chiropractic in Europe
Transcript of History of Chiropractic in Europe
History of Chiropractic in Europe
Legislation in Chiropractic:
I DC per 20, 000 in Denmark
1 DC per 30, 000 in Norway
1 DC per 40, 000 in Switzerland
1 DC per 85, 000 in Sweden
1 DC per 200,000 in UK
1 DC per 1,500,000 in Spain
1 DC per 5,000,000 in West Germany
In Switzerland, Simon Muller went to jail for 45 days
for practicing medicine without a licence.
An important number of DCs emigrated to Europe
By 1923 Chiropractic existed in at least 10 countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Holland, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK)
In 1926 the first European book wrote by a Chiropractor was published .
It was called “Healing by manipulation (bone-setting)”
“…In America they are very powerful organized, and have received official recognition. In England they often call themselves manipulators, bone-setters, or some similar name, tough latterly the words “chiropractor” and “osteopath” have been increasingly used…”
In France bonesetters were called rebouteux
In Germany they were called knocheneinrichter
In Denmark they were called kloge folk
In Spain they were called algebristas
Osteopathy was introduced to Britain in 1898
Before the end of WWI there was already formal Osteopathic formation in Europe
The British School of Osteopathy was founded in 1917.
In the therapeutic approach osteopaths, bone setters and Chiropractors were seen very similar by the general population due to the emphasis on manipulation.
In USA straight (unadultered form) and mixer (with adjunctive therapies)
Both BJ and DD were opposed to “mixing”
In Europe some chiropractors supported the Palmers’ view on Chiropractic.
A very big branch of the profession used Chiropractic as a “complementary therapy”
-In the UK there were 3 attempts to start Chiropractic education during the 1920s and 1930s
-In 1921 in Manchester “Looker School of Bloodless Surgey”. Changed its name in 1923 to “Looker College of Osteopathy and Chiropractic”
-In 1925 the British College of Chiropractic was formed. They received a diploma to join the British Chiropractic Society (no relation to the BCA) which was part of the British Naturopathic Association.
-In the 1930s there was the Edinburgh College of Naturopathy, Osteopathy and Chiropractic
The ECU did not represent the whole European profession
By 1934 there were 200 DCs in Europe (60 in England)
By 1935 only 60 members of the ECU
Divisions started again. Those who were qualified and those who weren’t and also straight vs. mixers.
Still no Chiropractic School recognized by the ECU
Hard to impossible for prospective students to travel to USA
In Denmark they tried to open a program with 15 students. They enrolled these students in a medical institution for the basic sciences. People in the university were “quite upset”.
In Belgium they tried to open another Chiropractic School , which was not well accepted by BJ. (BJ said that the fountainhead should be the only school to create pure unadultered DCs)
In Oxford, England, there was also an attempt to open a new school. Again they tried to unite it with naturopathy and osteopathy.
With Fred Illi as president in the 50s and 60s Chiropractic got a lot of support from National Associations and governments.
A much more relaxed attitude to those who didn’t want to practice “straight chiropractic” was adopted.
More and more DCs started to see Chiropractic as “limited scope” , and they wanted to see themselves specializing on treating some specific diseases. These diseases were musculoskeletal in their majority.
There was a call for DCs to “re-evaluate their discipline along scientifically defensive lines, encourage rational and empirical approaches, and discard traditional metaphysical beliefs.”
The European Council of Chiropractic Education (ECCE) was formed to ensure the standards for Chiropractic Education in Europe. Similar bodies already existed in North America (CCE) and Australasia (CCEA).
The board of directors of the CCE was held in september 1987.