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Chapter 5 - Roman Empire

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John Brosnahan

on 27 September 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 5 - Roman Empire

V. Roman Culture

III. Military Might
Roman Republic heavily militarized
Roman aristocrats tied to military (warrior ethos)
From legend the twin brothers, Romulus and Remus, sons of Mars founded Rome and that is why Romans are so heavily focused on their military
Kings personally led their troops into battle
Romans excelled in technology and organization (catapults, mobile cavalry, warships)
First they took ideas from Greek hoplite phalanxes, but later strayed away to form their own smaller army. This army increased in skill by rows and was better for maneuvering.
Built a Navy that defeated Carthage (greatest sea power of the time) and copied their warships
Roman Empire
II. Social World of the Late Republic
IV. From Republic to Empire
Principate

A 6th Period
AP WORLD HISTORY
Production
Mr. Brosnahan
Comet Blecha
Savannah Cerda
Mac Grant
Kasey Held
Estelle Jung
Aimen Salem
Bobby Sparks
Austin Swatek
John Vu
VII. Eastern Roman Empire
(Byzantine Empire)
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
The Problem of "Barbarians"
Celts
Germans
Steppe peoples
Dismemberment of Empire
Plague
Third-Century crisis: series of invasions
Division into eastern and western empires
Settlement of Germans within Empire as "federates"
410 Sack of Rome
476 abdication of last western emperor
survival of eastern empire
The problem of "barbarians": Steppe Peoples
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
Dismemberment of Empire: Plague
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
Dismemberment of Empire: Third-century crisis: series of invasions
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
Dismemberment of Empire: Division into eastern and western empires
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
Dismemberment of Empire: 476 abdication of last western emperor
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
Dismemberment of Empire: 410 Sack of Rome
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
Militarism = central to Roman Ideology
First Triumvirate
An alliance of three men (general Julius Caesar, general Pompey, and business man Marcus Licinius Crassus who became a military commander) to rule and maintain public order
Barbarians
Spoke unknown foreign languages
Did not have
cities
written languages
formal government structures
established geographical boundaries
codified laws
labor specialization
Roman Religion
Triumph of Christianity
After Christianity was named official state religion, it gained government support for the termination of polytheistic cults
Even Mithraism, the most widespread religion, died out while Christianity remained triumphant
Roman Republic
The founding date is 753 B.C.E
The myth says Romulus and Remus twin sons of mars, the God of War, founded the ciy
It was Founded where they were rescued from, the Tibet River
The myth says they were both nurtured and rescued by a she-wolf
C. 509 B.C.E Creation of Republic
At this time wealthy and powerful citizens of rome kicked etruscan kings out
Declared rome a republic
republic- a goverment in which power resides in a body of citizens and consists of representatives elected by a group of rulers
Armies remained the center power
Soilders provided their own arms, onlyn men with some wealth and property could command rise in ranks
Divided into military units called centuries , groups of one hundred
leaders continue to to meet together to elect magistrates.
Etruscans
For Two and a half centuries, Kings of the Neighboring Eturia, the land to Rome's North, ruled.
Roman's learned much from the Etruscans about city building, art, religion, mythology, and even language
The etruscan king, Servius tullious, reformed the military, creating the comitia centuriata, a deliberative ruling council organized by hundreds, representing the armies of rome and its goverment
This assembly of Roman citizens peristed for centuries after the etruscans had ended, reinforcing the connection between the armies of romes and goverments

The Roman Empire was effected by slavery due to almost the entire civilization being dependent on slavery. When the three slave revolts happened, the empire was in turmoil. Since the entire empire had relied on slavery to do the difficult jobs no one else wanted to do, the empire was falling apart. As the government was stopping the revolts, they had no one to forge their weapons and other items for enforcement due to slaves always doing the difficult job of smithing.
Slavery and its effects on the Roman Republic
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
The problem of "barbarians": Celts
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
The problem of "barbarians": Germans
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
Dismemberment of Empire: Settlement of Germans within Empire as "Federates"
Rise of G. Julius Caesar
Soldiering became a profession with regular wages
When Rome conquered another city-state they had to serve in the army to become free (about 7 years)
The Barbarians were also encouraged to join the Roman army
As Rome expanded so did their army
In the field, soldiers built: military camps, administrative towns, strings of fortress watch towers along the borders, roads, and aqueducts
Widespread Slavery in Empiric Rome
Since you bought a slave and you did not hire them, you only make a one time payment for them. This took away jobs from the free people in Rome. make their lives easy, the wealthy families of Rome could not do the simplest tasks.
The Republican Struggle between Nobles and Peasants
The noble people exploited the peasants throughout their entire lives, and never gave the peasants a chance to get ahead in their terrible lives. The noblemen and ladies were safe from most sieges on their towns and villages, while the hard working farmers outside constantly had their farms destroyed by invading people. In Ancient Rome, there was no middle-class; there were the extremely wealthy and the people with nothing. If you were born into a poor family, you had no chance of getting out of that wealth division, until much later on in Rome's history.
The Gracchi Brothers
The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, attempted to pass land reform legislation that would take land from the wealthy landowners and give it to poor soldiers and peasant farmers who were being mistreated by the greedy landowners. They also attempted to provide subsidized grain for the needy and have the Roman Republic pay for the clothing of poor soldiers. The Gracchi brothers ended up being assassinated after having some success with this.
Triumph of Christianity-
Conquest of Gaul
58 B.C.E. Caesar led his troops to take over Gaul(modern France)and protect it from invaders
Caesar escaped prosecution of his violent acts (by going on this conquest)
Caesar's Gallic War tells of 9 years of military campaigns that brought all of Gaul under Rome
Caesar as dictator
Ruled as dictator from 47-44B.C.E. (Rivals assassinated him because they thought he had too much power
Was Rome's most successful general and one of its best orators as well
Revised Roman calendar creating the Julian calendar (lasted 1500 years
Re-organized Rome's city government
Extended citizenship to people of the conquered
Continued the policy of free attempt at reconciliation
Forced creditors to accept payment in land and property valued at pre-war and canceled all interest due since the wars began
After Jesus' death, around the time of Marcus Aurelius, Christianity began reconsideration by Roman people
Persecution
Initially attracted the poor, then more powerful classes who were also moved by Jesus' teachings
Constantine and the Peace of the Church
Outlawing of Polytheism 394 C.E.
When the Roman empire took over in 200 BC they adopted and renamed a large portion of the gods,deities and myths of the Greek Empire
Caesar's refusal to divorce his wife, Cornelia, was unusual because aristocratic marriages/divorces were usually made for political reasons(defied Sulla, the military dictator in 100 B.C.E., who wanted him to divorce Cornelia because she was the daughter of their rival, Cinna)
He was elected magistrate in 65 B.C.E. (in charge of public games)
Elected chief priest, pontifex maximus, of the Roman state in 63 B.C.E.
Elected praetor(council leader of the army) in 60 B.C.E.
He sometimes used strong-arm methods to intimidate the Senate, such as having his consul attacked and beaten
Roman religion focuses on a person who was an emperor-god
Rome took over Greece in 200 B.C.E.
Adopted and renamed the gods, deities, and myths in the Greek pantheon
Greco-Roman Polytheism
Addition of a Cult
of Deified Emperors
Tolerance of all Religions that weren't Harmful to the State
Persecution
Constantine and the Peace of the Church
Outlawing of Polytheism 394 C.E.
509 B.C.E continued...
The magistrates, adminastrative, and judicial officials admistrated the roman republic
lowest level consuls held power that extended over all lands Rome ruled
Conquest of Italy 396-294 B.C.E
Roman republic established aliances with other nearby places and tried to challenge Etruscans
396 B.C.E, after the siege of six years Romans captured Veii, Etruscan kings
Celtic invaders sacked but Rome continued to expand
Small, Flexible units, armed with swords and other waepons, lined with unexpierence, were in the front of the formation
By 264 B.C.E controlled all of Italy south of Po Valley
As rome expanded rome offered opponents a choice between alliance and conquest.
Conquest of Italy continued....
Rome became a society geared for war
created combat with Mediterranean opponents
for the next 140 years its troops were akmost constantly on the move
Freedom of religion required two things: reverence toward the emperor and unquestioning faith in the legitimacy of the state
Mithraism- Worshiped the Persian sun god Mithra.It emphasized discipline and loyalty. Popular within military troops.
Female centered religions were popular among women
Worship of Cybele- earth-mother of Asia Minor
Worship of Egyptian goddess Isis
Religions origins and initiations are still unknown
Increasing numbers of Romans became interested in Christianity
Severe persecution of Christians under the rule of Nero,Marcus Aurelius, Maximus I, Decius, Valerian and Diocletian
Despite these persecutions, Christianity became accepted over the course of 300 years
Constantine and Licinius validated Christianity in 313
Constantine ruled alone after324
He favored Christianity and believed it brought him and his empire miraculous benefits
After Christianity was legalized, it spread freely through conquered lands and northwestern Europe
Network of roads and towns eased the transmission of Christianity
Principate- Period in time when one man took control. This period runs from Augustus to Diocletian. The earlier period, the republic, is viewed as a time of greater freedom, yet the principate initially brought peace from a civil war.
Establishment
Augustus saw two basic needs he had to satisfy. One was the civil wars and turmoils that were going on inside the Roman Empire in the last century. It showed that there was a need for a strong "one man rule" backed by the military. Secondly the traditional conservative nature of the Romans made it a must for any future reforms to be similar to the times of the republic, with elections, and many political offices.
Golden Age
Augustus
Sole Ruler from 30 B.C.E-14 C.E
Augustus was over all a good leader, his positive accomplishments outnumber the negative.
He put an end to decades of long civil wars
Introduced an imperial system that kept the empire together for 400+ years
Cities, trade, population, and culture flourished
Golden Age
The era of Augustus' reign was a golden age in every respect. The peace that August restored caused economy arts and agriculture to flourish. An ambitious building program was started where Augustus completed plans made by Julius Caesar. He then continued with his own grand designs. In some famous inscriptions it is claimed that he restored 82 temples in one year.
The famous public baths of Rome were constructed under Augustus.
Overall the time of Augustus' rule was a good time and known as a golden age.
Economics
State did not allow religions that challenged the authority of the emperor or empire
Worship of the god Bacchus was not allowed for fear of lower-class revolts
Rome conquered Jerusalem, home of the Jews
Judaism based on ethical monotheism and ethnic patriotism
Judaism was a threat to Roman rulers
Jews revolt three times and Rome destroys Jerusalem in response
Jesus of Nazareth preached Christianity
Christianity clashed with Roman government
Romans crucified Jesus for treason and threat to the government
if u want u can go smaller
Economic life in Rome
Most of the people that inhabit Rome live well. The economy was good. They had better paved streets sewage disposal, water supply, and fire protection than capitals of civilized Europe in the 1800.
Trade
Trade was vital to ancient Rome. Trade brought in a lot of money used by the empire. The whole empire was cris-crossed with trade routes using roads built by the Romans, mainly for trade and for transporting the military. There were also sea routes crossing the Mediterranean and black sea
silver
beef
corn
glassware
iron
lead
leather
silk
marble
olive oil
Perfumes
dyes
Spices
tin
wine

They imported to Spain, France, Middle East and North Africa
Decadence
One of the reasons for the Roman empire to fall is decadence. This means they became weak an immoral. Unusual cruel thing were happening. Such as throwing Christians to the lions, Poisoning their spouses, children and parents, eating exotic animal parts such as humming bird tongue, and much more. People strongly believe this impacted the fall of the Roman empire the most
Greece paid a significant role in Roman culture, finding its way into the language, literature, architecture, sculptures, and paintings of Rome.
The Latin poet Virgil incorporated Greek epics in his tales of the superiority and prosperity of the Roman empire.
Stoicism was a popular form of Roman philosophy that was founded by the Greek Zeno.
The Romans also adopted many Greek myths which explains their nearly identical pantheons of gods and deities.
The Deep Influence of Greece
Arrived in Europe as early as 2000 B.C.E.
Known for horse-riding warriors & slow development of iron technology of weapons and tools
By 400 B.C.E., Celts had expanded their territory to regions including Rome and Central Europe
They also began pushing towards Spain, Brit Isles, the Balkans, and Anatolia
Built fortified towns based off Greek/Roman examples
The Celt women had more freedom than women living in Rome
Eventually Rome conquered the Celtic peoples; as a result, they were killed, assimilated into another culture, or fled to other countries
The Goths were a group of Germanic peoples (Visigoths and Ostrogoths) that settled in northern Europe
Evidence of this early period comes from burials in bogs of Northern Germany and Denmark
Between 600-500 B.C.E., these Germanic peoples had established small villages and began to work with iron to make tools and weapons
Romans and Germans skirmished, traded, and penetrated each other's territories
Also Germans adopted conquered Roman's tools, weapons, & luxury goods
When Steppe nomads invaded Europe from Asia, the Goths migrated westward into Roman territories
Germanic invasions created tensions between Rome and the Goths
The Goths formed states within the imperial territories
The "Huns", were a group of Steppe people from central Asia that invaded Europe
They were one of many warrior nomads from European Russia and Manchuria
Lived on their horses, herding cattle, sheep, horses, and hunting
They lived in tents and used wagons for transportation
Groups had chief and governments and no random living arrangements
When they invaded Europe, Romans observed their political structure
Steppe Nomads engaged in battles that helped topple the Han Dynasty in China and launched attacks on India
Plague wiped out up to a quarter of the population in some areas between 165-180 C.E.

Historians still debate the exact severity and impact of the plague but it diminished numbers and undermined the self-confidence of empire's population





Rome became vulnerable to numerous invasions due to the plague that was slowly devastating the empire
During reign of Marcus Aurelius (161-180 C.E) the Marcomanni began invading the Danube Basin
168-175: Marcus Aurelius attempted to assimilate invaders into Empire by giving them land and offering positions in Roman Military
248: Emperor Decius (r. 249-251) defeated an invasion of Goths in the Balkans. He was later killed by another Gothic group
Goths took ships and attacked Black Sea commerce cutting off parts of Rome's grain supplies.
Survival Of Eastern Empire
The Emperor Constantine inaugurated the "New Rome" which is Constantinople to share with Rome, as a co capital. Three complementary elements characterized the new city: greek language and culture; Roman law and administration; and christian faith and organization which lead to it's survival. The western empire only survived another century and a half while the eastern empire survived for another thousand years until it became an empire in it's own right. It was also less geographically overextended which made it easier to defend. The ruling classes were also never a s isolated and alienated as common people in the west.
Resurgence under Justinian
The East had to withstand military attack. The Germanic tribes crossed the Danube, but found Constantinople impenetrable. It was defended by huge walls built by the emperor Theodosius. Using German Mercenaries, the eastern emperor Justinian recaptured many of the western regions including North Africa, Southern Spain, Sicily, Italy and Rome itself. After he died most of the Western conquests were lost. Justinian's legal, administrative, and architecture initiatives produced more lasting results. Justinian's had the Roman system of civil law codified in four great works, known as the Justinian code. In time the code became the basis for much of modern European law
Religious Disputes
Warfare forced the decentralization of Rome's power from capital to provincial battlefields and from Senate to generals in the field
Soldiers of Gaul, Britain, and Spain declared general Postumus (r. 259-268 C.E) independent ruler of those areas, but Aurelian defeated their mutiny in 274 C.E.
Emperor Diocletian (r. 284-305 C.E) claimed to himself a sanctity and splendor never seen before that bankrupted the empire and brought displeasure to the population of Rome
Regional capitals were established, and in 330 C.E. Constantine established Constantinople as a secondary capital of Empire for ruling Eastern region of Empire
After 395 C.E., an emperor in Rome and Constantinople formally separated empire into east and west
Monophysites - were beliefs that Jesus's nature was only divine, not human.

Iconoclasm - was a belief that christians should enforce the biblical commandment against idol worship by banning icons. This lead to a war over the use of images or icons that were worshiped.
The Build Up of Strong byzantine bureacracy
Barbarians continued breaching imperial defenses
Valentinian I (r. 364-375) was final emperor capable of driving them back
From here on Germans started breaching Roman defenses in increasing numbers
378- Valentinian's brother, Valens (r. 364-378), lost 2/3's of Eastern armies in battle against Visigoths and Adrianople
Theodosius I (r. 379-395), Valen's successor, settled Visigoth's within empire requiring them to provide soldiers and farmers.
Federate status became a common pattern among Goths, Franks, Alans, and Vandals.
Emperors started avoiding Rome and preferred to reside in cities such as Milan and Trier.
Alaric, the Visigoth(c. 370-410), invaded Italy in 401
In response, Honorius (r. 395-423) moved the capital from Milan to Ravenna, a more defensible city on east coast of Italy
Alaric invaded Italy again in 407, and then sacked Rome in 410.
At end of 406 combined forces of Goths, Vandals, Suevi, Alans, and Burgundians crossed the Rhine into Gaul and moved into spain. They started off sacking, looting and burning but eventually established their own settlements
Huns were building their own confederacy in Central Europe.
Attila (c. 406-453), their most powerful leader, commanded them 434 to 453.
Attila's territory stretched from Baltic to Danube
451 - He invaded Italy, threatened Rome, and withdraw only on the intervention of Pope Leo I.
After his death his armies dissolved and never gained back their power
476 - German general Odoacer depose the last Roman emperor in the west.
Odoacer became the first barbarian king of Italy
The Byzantine Empire consisted of a group of highly educated officials trained primarily at the university of Constantinople. The civil service was organized into a hierarchical system of considerable complexity. Taxes were collected regularly, justice was administrated, armies were raised and put into battle, and the functions of the state in general were very adequately carried out. Despite all it's faults it functioned more effectively, and for a longer period. The byzantine also had a stronger urban tradition than the west and its cities remained viable centers of commerce.
Emperor Gallienus (r. 253-268) created mobile cavalry as well as moved the imperial military capital from Rome to Milan to better handle invaders into Italy.
Aurelian (r. 270-275) protected Rome's western and northern borders but abandoned Dacia and pulled back to Danube
Sassanians of Persia confronted Rome in Armenia and Syria.
In 260 Emperor Valerian (r. 253-260) was captured and held prisoner for rest of his life living in humiliating conditions
Sassanians revolted against Persian Empire due to poor treatment of people and Rome recaptured eastern land
Zenobia declared independence of Syria and Mesopotamia and annexed Egypt. In 273 Aurelian defeated her and took her back to Rome in chains and put her on public display adorned with jewels.
VI. Transformation of the Roman Empire
Dismemberment of Empire: Third-century crisis: series of invasions
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