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Social Studies Review: Civil War and New South
Transcript of Social Studies Review: Civil War and New South
Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction, and New South
Warm-Up Game: Bluff
We're going to start the review with a game of Bluff. We'll flash some questions on the board; stand up if you know the answer, or if you don't! We'll call on someone, and if you know the answer, you get the points...if you miss it, you lose the points. Good luck!
What was the Georgia platform during the Antebellum period?
Georgia would accept the Compromise of 1850 if the Fugitive Slave Act was added to it.
What was the single bloodiest day of the Civil War?
What kind of government was in place in Georgia during Reconstruction?
Marshal law. The Union military occupied Georgia enforced the laws instead of the governor.
What group was in power during most of the New South era?
The Bourbon Triumvirate.
How did events like the Leo Frank case and leaders like the Bourbons Triumvirate influence the thoughts and feelings of Georgia at the time?
The economy of the South increased a lot from the depressed period during Reconstruction, but the leaders weren't very progressive, so social issues like Jim Crow, suffrage, temperance, et cetera were a concern.
Part V: The Impact of the New South
The New South was a time of big change in Georgia, and in the south as a whole. Lots of changes were happening to the south's economy and politics, and social issues were changing as well.
The political leaders of the New South affected the economics and had a lot to do with the social issues that took place as well.
The Political Leaders of the New South
The Bourbon Triumvirate was the leading political force during most of the New South era. They were southern democrats, but they mirrored the Republicans in their ideals. They impacted the New South by raising the economy to high levels that it hadn't seen since before Reconstruction.
But there were other leaders during the New South, such as Rebecca Latimer Felton and Henry Grady; these people never served as governors, but they addressed social issues such as racism, convict lease, temperance, and other issues.
The Cotton Expo and the Populist Party
Two other important events took place during the New South Era: the International Cotton Exposition and the rural free delivery system.
The Populist party put the rural free delivery system into play to get free mail to people who lived in rural country. It brought farmers into the loop of society, and brought the urban cities a little bit closer to them.
The Cotton Expo brought the outside world to Georgia. Henry Grady created it to show off Georgia's new agricultural technologies, and it brought northern business to the south and increased its economy even more!
Leo Frank and the County Unit System
Leo Frank was a Jewish businessman who came to the south to open a factory that employed children. A court case was filed against him when a student employee was found dead. He was going to be hanged, but the governor changed his sentence. Despite this, he was kidnapped from prison and lynched. Yet he wasn't even guilty! The evidence was stacked against him. This proved that the south was still plagued by its old racist ideals.
The County Unit System proved this as well. The system gave all the political power to rural counties, and they voted to keep white supremacist democrats in power until the 1960s; it showed that racism was still a huge problem in the south.
Part III: Reconstruction
The Reconstruction Era was the time right after the Civil War. The South's economy was in ruins and required rebuilding.On top of that, much property was burned and destroyed, leaving many of the people in poverty. This was a time to rebuild the south as a part of the U.S. once again, but things didn't go that smoothly.
The Freedmen's Bureau
The Freedmen's Bureau (the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands) was formed in 1865 by the War Dept. as a congressional idea for reconstruction. A majority of their actions were directed toward helping the new African American citizens adjust to their new lives. They helped them register to vote, purchase property, build schools, and get jobs. The idea was to socially adjust the south to all of the social change occurring.
Sharecropping and Tenant Farming
Sharecropping was one of the ways in which the southern citizens made money after they lost all their money because labor costs money now or just came out of slavery. A sharecropper got land, agricultural tools, and supplies to use from the landowners, but in exchange had to give the landowners a share of their crops.
Tenant farming is similar to sharecropping, the only difference is that tenant farmers have their own tools and supplies. It may have less disadvantages, but it is still a bad situation or both parties involved.
Problems with Sharecropping and Tenant farming.
The landowner didn't have enough money to keep the land, so they eventually went broke and had to sell the land. This caused a...
Idea that the south would not portray themselves as a region that had no respect for human rights.
New South attempted to be the "end of segregation and prejudice".
This goal was not commonly enforced until enforced by law.
Although the New South had goals for human rights it also attempted to make the south more economically diverse.
Henry Grady advertised throughout the nation of the great New South.
Henry Grady advertised to help the south grow into an economic powerhouse.
The new south intended for a new and improved economy along with new relations enforced by law.
The Cotton Exposition
Due to the lack of technology the south could not advertise their new lifestyle through radio and news so they had people come view the south.
It was people such as Henry Grady who were responsible for bringing Northerners to the south to expose the potential of the south.
One way to expose the south was through the cotton exposition which was the south's way of showing how much they had changed since the Antebellum period.
Goals were to make Atlanta a center for industrialization, tourism, and to promote Northerners investing in the south.
Cycle of Poverty
A- Hope for new job
B- Sharecropping/tenant farming
C- Landowner loses money
There were 3 plans for reconstruction. The first was Lincoln's plan, the second was Andrew Johnson's, and the third was the Congressional plan.
Issued on January 1, 1863 by Abraham Lincoln, freeing all the slaves in the Confederate States.
Was used as a military strategy, but did not help get all the African Americans freedom.
The battle that had the greatest amount of casualties out of the entire war.
It was a major turning point of the war, for the rest of the war for the north, after this they stared to win more and more battles.
Strategy used by the North to block all exports and imports coming from Europe.
Was pretty successful, but the south found a way to slip past some of the ships with small and quick boats called, blockade runners.
Major prison in the war, biggest one in the south.
Conditions compared to concentration camps due to the poor sanitation, malnourishment, and overcrowding.
Prisoners were mistreated and often beaten to death.
Atlanta and Savannah Campaign
This was part of Sherman's march to the sea, from Chickamauga, the Union Army headed to Atlanta, Hints the name Atlanta Campaign.
The Savannah Campaign was similar to the Atlanta campaign but it was the march from Atlanta to Savannah by Sherman's troops.
Marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign.
Confederate victory forced the Union Army back to Chattanooga which was their first objective to seize.
Sherman's March to the Sea
The Union pushed through Georgia destroying everything in their path.
They didn't really have an idea of where to go, most of the south thought they would work their way back up north after Savannah.
Abraham Lincoln's goal was to put the country back together as quickly as possible. You might even say he was Lincoln' America back together. Most confederate officers were pardoned and they only had make an oath in court to be accepted as citizens. Although congress disagreed, the plan was going well, until Lincoln's untimely death on April 15, 1865
When Vice President Andrew Johnson became President Andrew Johnson the plans for reconstruction were handed over to him. He kept most of Lincoln's principals, but added his own also. The Southern states had to get rid of the secession laws and write a new constitution. The southern states also had to approve the 13th amendment to outlaw slavery.
The radical republicans wanted to punish the south. They sent in Military Generals to take the role Governor. The occupational troops had to enforce the new laws and protect the African American's rights. When the state was re-admitted to the Union the occupational troops left, but when they left there was nobody to enforce the new laws, so the troops would come back.
General John Pope; Georgia's Military Governor (General Contemplation).
After the Union won the civil war they went straight to work on establishing equality for all citizens. They did so by creating 3 amendments.
The 13th amendment was the most obvious to be put into place; the outlawing of slavery.
The 14th Amendment granted citizenship to all people that were born or immigrants granted citizenship. These citizens were given the right to "due process".
The 15th amendment gave the right to vote to all Freedmen, but no women were allowed to vote.
Part I: Antebellum Era
States' Rights: belief that a state's interests are more important than national states
Nullification: ignoring a law you don't like
*North limited/abolished slavery while
the South supported it.
11 states were free and 11 were slave states
In house of representatives, the number of votes was determined by the population.
North states were free states and had a higher population, so they would get the most votes.
The compromise then stated that no state north of the 36' 30' latitude line could be a slave state.
The Compromise of 1850
There was an even amount of slave and free states, but California wanted to be a free states.
Many people were mad so to please the South, California became a free state but the Fugitive Slave Act (having to return all slaves back to their owners) was passed.
Kül Kidz Klubbe
The KKK (Ku Klux Klan) began as an organization of Confederate Solider Veterans. Eventually, all of that southern pride turned into rebellious attitudes and stuff like "the south will rise again". The KKK were White supremacists, and therefore had a lot of hate toward the Freedmen. They used terror to scare away the new citizens at voting booths. All of this naturally led to more racial problems.
Overall, with all these things going on at the same time, reconstruction wasn't going well. Many people struggled, and some just gave up, but it is the people who looked forward, not back, that gave the south a second chance, and look how far we've come.
Georgia would support the Compromise of 1950 if the North would support the Fugitive Slave Act, and to stop trying to ban slavery in new states.
The North was mad because slavery could possibly spread in northern territories.
Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott was a slave that was taken by his owner from a slave state to a free state, and filed a suit because he was in IL (a free state) but the Supreme Court decided against him.
Election of 1860
Lincoln was nominated from the republicans to run for president.
Lincoln ended up winning the election without any votes from the South
Debate Over Secession
South Carolina seceded from the union, and later Georgia became an independent republic.
Then Florida, Alabama, Missouri, Louisiana, and Texas left the union.
All of the states that seceded formed a new nation called the Confederate States of America.
Alexander Stephens was elected as the vice president from Georgia.
Part IV: The New South
Review for Understanding
We're going to play another game of Bluff. This time, though, you'll be in teams, and we're going to let you guys pick who to call on next.
What was the Compromise of 1850?
What was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War?
Answer #1: It said that California would become a free state and the Fugitive Slave Act would be passed.
What was Andrew Johnson's plan for reconstruction after the Civil War?
Answer #2: Gettysburg.
What was the purpose of the New South?
Answer #4: He wanted to reunite the country quickly, like Lincoln, but he also allowed Congress to punish Confederate leaders and he forced the South to abandon secession laws and to write a new Constitution.
What was the impact of Tom Watson in Georgia?
Answer #4: It attempted to end the portrayal of the South as a region with no concern for human decency, and to diversify the south's economy.
Answer #5: He created the Populist party movement in Georgia, and he helped establish the Rural Free Delivery System (which brought free mail to farmers and rural-county dwellers to keep them in the loop).
Credits and Contributions
Bluff and Review Games: Judd Baker
Antebellum: Serena Mercado
Civil War: Matthew Frick
Reconstruction: Noah Saunders
New South: Dawson Owens
Impact of New South: Judd Baker
Vocabulary and Notes Sheet: Serena Mercado
Thanks for watching!
Hopefully you learned SOMETHING!