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Animals 2

Endocrine System Animal Reproduction and Development Nervous System Musculoskeletal System
by

Allie Born

on 2 May 2010

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Transcript of Animals 2

Animals Two!!! Allie Born
Brian MacLafferty
Cameron Sabotin to the endocrine system!!! Endocrine
System Homeostasis Temperature Regulation
Equilibrium of Body
pH of blood and organs
Negative Feedback Loop
Water level (urinary system
Digestive System Glucose Regulation How does the
endocrine system actually work? Stimulus

Receptor Protein

Endocrine Cell

Blood Vessel

Target Effectors

Response
Negative Feedback Loop to animal reproduction!!! Animal Reproduction
and
Development Endocrine Quick Quiz 1. High levels of hypothalamic and pituitary secretions
would not be found in
A. a man running on a treadmill
B. a doctor delivering a baby
C. a resting infant
D. a student taking an examination
E. a person speaking at a conference
2. The concentration of the following hormones in the
bloodstream stimulates the contraction of uterine muscles
in pregnant women?
A. FSH
B. LH
C. Prolactin
D. Oxytocin
E. Epinephrine
3. Which of the following is true regarding the
hypothalamus?
A. It secretes thyroid-stimulating hormone
B. It secretes luteinizing hormone
C. It is an extension of the pituitary gland
D. It produces neurosecretory hormones
E. It secretes neurotransmitters into synapses Female The Menstrual
Cycle Oogenesis Male parts of the female reproductive system Morphogenesis Zygote-Cleavage-Blastula-Gastrula-Organogenesis Sperm+Ovum=Zygote ~Ectoderm-skin,
eyes, nervous system
~Endoderm-lungs,
liver, organ lining,
accessory organs
~Mesoderm-bones,
muscle, excretory,
circulatory, and
reproductive systems Chick Embryo Nervous
System R and d quick quiz 1. Which of the following processes
produces embryonic germ layers?
A. Gastrulation
B. Cleavage
C. Blastulation
D. Organogenesis
E. Fertilization
2. Which of the following is derived
from embryonic endoderm?
A. Epidermis of skin
B. Muscular system
C. Skeletal system
D. Stomach
E. Pancreas
3. Which male reproductive organ
secretes sex hormones?
A. Interstitial cells
B. Vas deferens
C. Seminal vesicles
D. Prostrate gland
E. Seminiferous tubules to the nervous system!!! Action Potential Resting Potential: neuron is polarized (more negative on the inside than outside)
Action Potential: cell reaches its threshold, creates a nerve impulse, all-or-none response
Depolarization: sodium ion gates open up and sodium rushes into the cell, now the cell becomes more positive than outside
Repolarization: sodium channels close, potassium channels open and potassium rush out of the cell, the inside of the cell becomes more negative again
Refractory Period: neuron charge back to original state but the ions are now on the wrong side, sodium-potassium pump kicks three sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions it brings into the cell, everything is now back to normal


When one area is depolarized, it causes a 'domino effect' and the action potential spreads to the rest of the axon toward the axonal bulb
Most important Neurontransmitter: ACETYLCHOLINE Nervous System Flow Chart Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System Spinal cord Brain
Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Hypothalamus
Medulla
Pons
Midbrain
Thalamus Somatic
(voluntary) Autonomic
(involuntary) Sympathetic
(fight-or-flight) Parasympathetic
(brings body back
to normal) Nervous System Quick Quiz 1. Which description correctly identifies myelin sheath in
its role of nerve impulse transmission?
A. It inactivates Na+ gates of Na channels during an action potential.
B. It releases neurotransmitters into the synapse
C. It completely insulates the axon of neurons
D. It slows down the conduction of nerve impulses
E. Its presence leads to a concentration of voltage-gated
Na+ and K+ channels at the nodes of Ranvier

Refer to this list for questions 2 and 3:
A. Cerebral Cortex
B. Spinal Cord
C. Medulla Oblongata
D. Cerebellum
E. Hypothalamus

2. Controls many vital functions such as heartbeat, respiration,
and blood pressure

3. Reflex center for muscular coordination Musculoskeletal
System to the musculoskeletal system!!! Skeletal Muscle Contraction When acetylcholine is released by a motor neuron, it binds with receptors on a muscle fiber and causes action potential. This impulse stimulates the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The calcium ions bind to tropinin molecules, exposing the mysosin-binding sites on the actin filaments. ATP (bound to the myosin heads) is split and ADP is released. Myosin, now cocked, binds to the exposed actin site and myosin-actin cross bridges form. Myosin then pulls on the actin molecule, drawing it toward the center of the sarcomere. Then the myosin-actin coplex binds ATP and myosin releases actin. Actin-thin
Mysoin-thick Antagonistic Muscles Attached to skeleton
Voluntary control
Multinucleated
Rapid Contraction Wall of heart
Involuntary control
Not multinucleated
Intermediate
Contraction Wall of digestive tract
Involuntary control
Not multinucleated
Slowest Contraction Types of Muscle Tissues Bones Musculoskeletal Quick Quiz 1. The flow of calcium into cells is essential to which of the following processes?
A. Activiation of pepsin
B. Thyroid hormone release
C. Skeletal muscle contraction
D. Urine concentration
E. Depolarization
2. Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle cells are
A. uninucleated, rapidly contracting, and under voluntary control
B. uninucleated, slowly contracting, and under involutary control
C. multinucleated, rapidly contracting, and under voluntary control
D. uninucleated, slowly contracting, and under voluntary control
E. multinucleated, rapidly contracting, and contain intercalated discs
3. Connects muscle to bone
A. Cartilage
B. Tendon
C. Ligament
D. Collagen
E. Bone Current Event:
Bionics Bionics relates to the nervous and musculoskeletal Systems
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