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Transcript of Plastic
Diffrent kinds of plastic
Production of plastic Properties Acoustical Properties of plastic Softer plastics absorb more sound than hard plastic because in soft plastics the pores are bigger, while in hard plastics their pores are closer together and smaller causing sound to reflect. Chemical Properties Corrosion Plastic is usually completely resistant to a specific corrodent or deteriorate rapidly.Polymers are attacked either by chemical reaction or solvation.
Solvation is the penetration of the polymer by a corrodent, which causes softening, swelling, and ultimately failure. Corrosion of plastics can be classified in the following ways as to attack mechanism:
1. Disintegration or degradation of a physical nature due to absorption, permeation, solvent action, or other factors.
2. Oxidation, where chemical bonds are attacked
3. Hydrolysis, where ester linkages are attacked
5. Thermal degradation involving depolymerization and possibly repolymerization
6. Dehydration (this is not so common)
7. Combinations of the above Absorbtion of light Permeation The absorption of UV light, mainly from sunlight, degrades polymers in two ways. First, the UV light adds thermal energy to the polymer as in heating, causing thermal degradation. Second, the UV light excites the electrons in the covalent bonds of the polymer and weaken the bonds, hence the plastic becomes more brittle. Permeation is molecular migration through microvoids either in the polymer or between polymer molecules. Permeability is a measure of how easily gases or liquids can pass through a material. All materials are somewhat permeable to chemical molecules, but plastic materials tend to be an order of magnitude greater in their permeability than metals. However, not all polymers have the same rate of permeation. In fact, some polymers are not affected by permeation. Environmental Properties It takes 3840 kilowatt-hours of energy to create a ton of plastic (estimate) and a kilo of plastic has about 185 litres of embedded water. Embodied Energy and Embodied water Electrical Properties Resistivity Dielectric strength Arc resistance Dielectric constant Dissipation factor The resistivity of a material is the resistance that a material presents to the flow of electrical charge. The voltage that an insulating material can withstand before breakdown occurs. It usually depends on the thickness of the material and on the method and conditions of the test. The property that measures the ease of formation of a conductive path along the surface of a material, rather than through the thickness of the material as is done with dielectric strength. Is the measure of how well the insulative material will act as a dielectric capacitor. This constant is defined as the capacitance of the material in question compared (by ratio) with the capacitance of a vacuum. A material measures the tendency of the material to dissipate internally generated thermal energy (i.e. heat) resulting from an applied alternating electric field. Plastic Sustainability and Innovation Bio-Plastics Bio-Plastic Production in 2010 Predicted Bio-Plastic Production for 2015 Three Types of Bio-Plastic Recycling Petr-Plastics and Bio-Plastics Closed Circle Life Cycle of Plastics Nanotechnology to Improve Bio-Plastics Improved Strength Better Barrier Properties Rep-purposed Plastic The Plastiki Machinery Molds & Machinery Real World Examples Storage & Organization Magnetic Properties -In 2004, University of Durham created a plastic magnet that is active at room temperature
-Some plastic magnets created before that but only worked at low temperature
-Mixture of two different polymers known as The Durham compound
-Only weakly magnetic and not 100% efficient MANUFACTURING PROPERTIES Commonly Used Manufacturing Methods of Plastics:
-Transfer Molding MECHANICAL PROPERTIES -Plastics have viscoelasticity, characteristics of both a viscous liquid and spring-like elastomer
-specific manufacturing properties are limited to the type of plastic, heat applied, and pressure applied
-Other factors include: tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, and hardness of specific plastic being used -light transmission and surface reflectance differs greatly depending on the plastic being examined
- can be glossy or matte ; any color ; translucent, transparent, or opaque Optical Properties RADIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES -plastics have been used in radiation detection devices for many years
-however, not able to differentiate between neurons and gamma rays (the key to detecting plutonium or uranium)
-within the last year, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been working on developing a plastic that can
-this will allow for detectors to be placed in roads,seaports and other passages as well as allow detectors to be smaller and more lightweight -thermal conductivity plays a roll in the function and manufacturing capabilities of a plastic
-some plastics designed to conduct heat well, others not so well
-depending on the plastic, melting point THERMAL PROPERTIES Created by: Grant, Amanda, Jesus, Melissa and Grace Real World Example