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Immune System:

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Brian Anderson

on 16 November 2016

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Transcript of Immune System:

Immune System:
Network of cells, tissues, organs, and chemicals that fights off pathogens
The immune system has two major defense strategies,
inflammatory response
and specific defenses
Inflammatory Response:
A reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection.
Its purpose is to prevent further tissue injury and to halt invading pathogens.
this causes the area of the injury to become hot, swollen, red, and painful.
in response to invasion by microorganisms and to tissue damage, blood vessles near the site of an injury expand to allow more blood flow to the area.
resulting in fluid and cells from the blood stream to leak into the area.
the collection of fluid and white blood cells causes swelling and pain because of pressure on nerve endings.
Phagocyte
white blood cell that attacks invading pathogens
phagocytes engulf pathogens and then destroy them with chemicals
A collection of dead white blood cells and damage tissue may collect at the site called pus
Skin is the first line of defense against many pathogens. Few pathogens can pass through the tough layer of dead skin cells that surround the body
Tears and saliva contain enzymes that destroy or disable many pathogens
Mucous membranes line many parts of the body, including your mouth, nose, and bronchial tubes. Cells in these membranes produce mucus, a sticky substance that traps pathogens. The mucus then carries the trapped pathogens to other areas of the body for disposal
Cilia the hairlike projections that line parts of the respiratory system, sweep mucus and pathogens to the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed out
Gastic juice in the stomach destroys many pathogens that enter the body through the nose and mouth
Specific Defenses
specific defenses react to invasion as a result of the body's ability to recognize certain pathogens and destroty them
Antigens are a substance that is capable of triggering an immune response. They are found on the surfaces of pathogens and in toxins.
Macrophages
are a type of phagocyte taht destroys pathogens by making antigens recognizable to white blood cells.

Lymphocyte is a specialized white blood cell that coordinates and performs many of the functions of specific immunity. There are two types a T cell and a B cell
There are different types of T cells: Helper T cells trigger the production of B cells and Killer T cells.
Killer T cells attack and destroy infected body cells. Killer T cells don't attack the pathogens themselves only the infected cells
Suppressor T cells coordinate the activities of other T cells. They "turn off" the Killer T cells when the infection clears up.
In conjunction with the work of T cells, lymphocytes called B cells produce antibodies.
Antibody is a protein that acts against a specific antigen.
each B cell is programmed to make one type of antibody, specific to a particular pathogen.
Some antibodies attach to foreign antigens to mark them for destruction . Some destroy invading pathogens. Other block viruses from entering the body
Memory Lymphocytes
Your immune system actually has a memory, some T cells and B cells that have been activated by antigens become memory cells.
Memory cells circulate in your bloodsteam and through the lymphatic system. When the memory cells recognize a former invader, the immune system uses antibodies and killer T cells in a quick defense to stop it.
Active Immunity
When you body is exposed to antigens from invading pathogens.
Artificially acquired active immunity develops in response to a vacine.
Vacine are a preperation of dead or weakened pathogens that are introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response.
Passive Immunity
Receiving antibodies from another person or animal.
Natural passive immunity occurs from mother to child while pregnate or nursing.
Artificial passive immunity results from the injection of antibodies produced by an animal or a human who is immune to the disease.
Immunity and the Lymphatic System
The Lymphatic system is part of your immune system. It includes your tonsils, lymph nodes, and a network of vessels, similar to blood vessels, that transport lymph, or tissue fluid.
Lymph Nodes can become enlarged when your body is fighting and infection because of teh increased number of lymphocytes. If swelling last for three days, see your health care provider.
Lymphocytes are produced by lymph nodes. These nodes occure in groups and are concentrated in the head and neck, armpits, chest, abdomen, and groin.
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