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Magazines - JOUR 1001

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Chelsea Reynolds

on 27 April 2016

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Transcript of Magazines - JOUR 1001

Today's lecture:
Who am I?
The History of Magazines
First specialized media
1663: "Edifying Monthly Discussions," Germany
1731: "Gentleman's Magazine" (first magazine with "magazine" in title)
Last print media to become mass
Elite literary / political -->
Popular / mass appeal -->
Specialized / custom marketed
Where does the word
"magazine" come from?
The History of Magazines: Colonial America
magazines took longer to catch on than they did in Europe. (No time, $, postage)
titles were specialized, local, political and usually failed.
mags were printed in 1741.
Andrew Bradford's "American Magazine"
Benjamin Franklin's "General Magazine"
The History of Magazines: Market Segmentation
Women's magazines
-- around since beginning of European mag publishing, circa mid-1600s.
1883: Meredith's Ladies' Home Journal is first high-circulation women's mag
1821: First
mag is "Saturday Evening Post," read by middle class families
Golden Age of Magazines
: 1885 - 1905
Height of traditional magazine publishing
Magazine Segmentation
With rise of mass circulation mags in the 1900s comes specialization in mag content
Three original magazine genres:
Cultural magazines
: mags of high- and low-brow culture, diverse range of lifestyle topics
: General-interest, include snippets of content from other media
: Easy-to-read, photo-heavy content focused on news events
Moving toward the present...
Magazines become less and less general in content
Special interest magazines gain popularity
Readers look to magazines for content they cannot find in other media outlets
Magazines move online and to tablets, create original online features
TALK: What services do magazines provide that other media do not -- both in print and online?
MPA Video
22 Tweetable Truths
of Contemporary

Consumer / Lifestyle Magazines

Released three or more times per year
Circulation > 3,000 (public, not business readers)
At least 16 pages of editorial content
Cover and advertise consumer products and lifestyles
Target people who have buying power
Trade / Professional / B2B Magazines

Editorial focus is on specific business
Audience: Individuals who work in the industry targeted by the magazine
Ads focus on products relevant to industry
PR and In-House Magazines
**not in Turow text

Published by parent corporations and organizations
Increase brand visibility
Target audience can be customers, employees, stockholders, dealers, etc.
Miscellaneous Mags / Journals
** Turow breaks this down as:
- Literary Reviews / Academic Journals
- and Comic Books

My breakdown includes:
Comic books
Professional and academic journals
Zines and e-zines
Literary mags and art mags
Take-away point:
Magazines are all about their audiences

10 Consumer Mag Genres
Sports & Outdoors
Magazine Glossary
Media Kits

Tell advertisers (and public) information about the magazine
Usually outline:
Content and voice
Reader demographics and circulation
Ad rates and rate base
Editorial calendars and closing dates
Editorial mission
EIC and head editors, department editors, ad staff contacts
Editorial pages: The pages in a magazine that are dedicated to original content created by the magazine staff or its freelancers.

Ad pages: The pages in a magazine that are dedicated to advertisements designed by out-of-house firms and paid for by corporate sponsors.

Specs: The specifications of a printed magazine, including paper dimensions, design details (bleeds and trim size) colors (RGB vs. CMYK), ad sizes, etc. Often included in a media kit.
Circulation: The number of total people (subscribers and newsstand buyers) who receive copies of the magazine.

Rate Base: The number of people a magazine guarantees its advertisers will reach. It defines how much advertisers will pay for ad pages. Generally, the higher the rate base, the higher the ad costs.

Ad Rate: The set cost of an ad in a given magazine. Rate varies depending on portion of page, color vs. black-and-white, and position within mag (inside cover vs. mid-book).
Editorial Calendar: An outline of which upcoming issues are dedicated to specific content (i.e.: "the food issue," "the diet issue"), what closing dates are, and what print dates will be.

Closing Date: The day on which editorial and ad content will be sent to press. Also the last day on which changes may be made to the magazine's content.

Break-of-Book: The breakdown of a magazine's layout, including ad pages and editorial pages. Looks like a story board with page numbers.
Mission Statement: The editorial objectives of the magazine. Tells the public and advertisers "why we do what we do."

Reader Profile: An outline of who, exactly, reads a magazine. Includes information about reader demographics and psychographics as well as reader engagement levels.
Demographics: Statistical information about readers' ages, genders, locations, economic statuses, employment, race, home ownership, college education, etc.

Psychographics: Statistical information about readers' personalities, values, attitudes, interests, and lifestyles. Describe subjective beliefs of people in market rather than objective data in demographics.
T.O.C.: Magazine jargon for "Table of Contents." Includes the magazine departments, story titles and the pages on which they appear.

F.O.B.: Short for "Front of Book." It's the first third of the magazine, which usually includes columns, short department stories, advertisements and graphic pages.

Feature Well: Middle of the magazine, which includes long "feature" stories and few or no advertisements.

B.O.B.: Short for "Back of Book." It's the last third of the magazine, which usually includes lots of ads and some short stories and columns. Often hosts horoscopes and run-over content from features.
Hed: Magazine speak for "headline." The story's title.

Dek: Magazine speak for "sub-head," "blurb" or "story summary."

Dek: New research says that feline parasite can cause schizophrenia in humans.

TK: Magazine speak for "to-come." A copy-editing filler for content that's yet to be added to a story.
Copy Flow: The process by which the initial text of a story moves from writer to editor to copy desk to designer. Often a combination of checks and rechecks.

Masthead: The list of magazine staffers listed within the first few pages of a title's editorial content organized from most-important to least-important staff position. Usually editorial staff and ad staff are listed separately on two separate pages.
Talk it out: What's your fav mag? Why?

What *is* a magazine?
The Pew Research Institute
State of the News Media 2015:
2014 - 2015: Overall magazine
circulation is down 2%
-- fitting a seven-year trend in decreased sales
2014 - 2015:
5% decrease in ad revenue
Most magazines still bringing in most of their audiences and most of their revenue through
print products
Subscriptions have held stable
despite single-copy sales decreasing
French "Magasin": "Store," "Warehouse"
Italian "Magazzino": "Storehouse"
Arabic "Maχázin": "Storerooms," "Storehouses"

Historically and even today,
a magazine is a storage place for ideas
Talk it out:

Consider the
Magazine Publishers of America Video
& the
22 Tweetable Truths About Magazine Media
What trends do you see in the magazine business?
Do you have any questions about or criticisms of the statistics provided?
Why might MPA provide this type of data?

From "Journalism: Who, What, When, Where, Why and How"
by James Glen Stovall (prof at University of Alabama)
President: This is the person responsible for the entire operation of the magazine. The president oversees and coordinates the activities of the editorial, advertising and circulation departments.
EIC: The editor is in charge of the non-advertising content of the magazine. The editor’s job is to see that the magazine stays true to its vision so that it will continue to appeal to subscribers and advertisers.
Managing Ed: The managing editor is in charge of producing each issue of the magazine. Not only does this person need to stay on top of the production of the upcoming issue, but he or she must also think several issues ahead. A Christmas issue, for instance, should be planned during the summer.
Section / Department Ed: A section editor is in charge of the staff of a section of the magazine. This editor makes assignments and controls the budget of the section and is responsible for what the section produces. There may be several section eds who report to the managing ed.
Writers / Reporters: These people are paid staff members and are expected to produce certain kinds of copy and articles for each issue of the magazine. Report to the Section Editor.
Freelancers: These writers are technically not part of the magazine’s organization since they are not paid staff members. They receive reporting and writing assignments from a section editor and are paid for each article they produce.
Art Director: The design editor, sometimes called art director, is in charge of the overall look of the magazine. This editor may have several designers or artists working in the section to lay out the magazine. One of the most important jobs of the design editor is to commission the cover of a magazine – often done by a freelance artist.
Copy editor: The copy editor is charged with reading all of the editorial copy that appears in the magazine to make sure it is properly written and factually correct.
EAs / Factcheckers: These people use a variety of methods to assure that the articles and listings in a magazine are factually correct. In addition to looking facts up in stored sources, they may go so far as calling sources cited in the article to make sure their information and quotations are correct.
Web editor: This person is in charge of the web site of the magazine. Magazine web sites are used not only to display a magazine’s editorial content but also to attract and sign up subscribers.
But, at the end of the day, nothing gets done at a magazine without...
The essential newsmagazine from 1936 - 1972
Mission statements:

State the magazine's relevance

Tell the public and advertisers what the content focuses on, who the readers are, and how the magazine's content serves its readers' needs

Think of as:
"why we do what we do"

Found in the media kit (or online media kit)
In-class exercise:

Write the
mission statement
for a magazine you imagine.

Make it creative! Have fun!
Mag Staff Web
And of course...

Questions about internships or this lecture?
e-mail me: reyno492@umn.edu
Rolling Stone &
US Weekly
In-Class Participation Exercise - DigiDay

Read the DigiDay article, answer those questions
Come back together as a large group.
Print vs. online editions
Traditional --> Online
Online --> Traditional
Benefits and drawbacks of each


Low-circulation publication
Typically 4-8 pages, circulated online mostly
Church newsletters, school newsletters, etc.
Murphy Weekly in SJMC
Similar to in-house publications but typically with fewer images, more text and stats heavy


-Supported by ad revenue and subscriptions
-Consumer magazines
-Some industry newsletters
-Need for circulation audits

Supported entirely by ad revenue
-Mostly trade and B2B titles
-Also open mags like AARP or alt weeklies
-Publisher decides who gets the magazine
Move away from general interest publishing model

Why do we segment mag genres?
Need to attract advertisers
Ads depend on the market segment
Increasingly specialized content appeals to niche readers
Industry evangelism (everything is OK!)
New distribution channels?

- Eliminate the print product - go to Web
- Tablet issues with price breaks for print subscribers
- Next Issue and similar products
- Traditional competitors teaming up for digital
Traditional distribution channels:

- Subscriptions:
Long-term order for a magazine paid in advance. Usually in one-year increments, sometimes longer. Much cheaper than the cover price.

- Single-copy sales:
Copy is for sale one issue at a time. Sold on newsstands (also called newsstand sales). Cover price is often 4x mark-up from subscription.

- Slotting fees:
Publishers pay retailers $ to place mags in top sales spots, such as in front of registers and check-out lines.
Talk it out:

Why are historically competitive magazine publishers developing online delivery services, especially in collaboration with each other?
Traditional funding structures:

Subscriptions & single-copy sales
Promotional events/products (fashion shows for women's mags, marathons for health mags, etc.)
Ads are magazines' primary revenue source.

Why should we be concerned about this?

Let's return to this question in a minute...
Kenneth Cole Perfume
Young Dakota Fanning for Lola Perfume
Let's talk:

Dominant messages in advertising
Issues w/ gender & sex
Is there a problem?
Other concerns about advertising:

- The editorial / ad conflict
- Can we discern ads from editorial?
- Advertorials / "Branded Content"
- Impact on reader behavior
- Effects on children & adolescents (cigarette + alcohol ads, sex)

Chelsea Reynolds
Ph.D. student at The U
M.A. journalism from Mizzou, B.A. magazines from Iowa State
Magazine editorial, magazine production and book publishing
Research sex & media and freelance for magazines
This is my LinkedIn picture.
You can add me!

History of magazines, industry background
Digital transition & in-class exercise
Magazines' cultural relevance
Magazine genres**
Generate questions for 2nd half

Finish genres and magazine staffs
Media kits and mission statements
Split into teams, design magazine editorial missions, branding strategies, target advertisers and audiences...
Bring writing utensils & devices
From Pew 2012
Conversation starters
What *is* a magazine? (print or digital)
What historical changes paved the way for magazines' popularity in the 19th and 20th centuries?
What challenges do magazine media face during the contemporary era?
Questions / clarifications from Wednesday?
Moving into distribution...
I'm skipping a lot of terms. Look at Prezi online if you want more info.
Final activity: Designing a magazine
Full transcript