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Forensic timeline

timeline of peoples whom are smart in forensic science.

scott drewitt

on 7 September 2012

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Transcript of Forensic timeline

jk 1870 1880 1780 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1790 FORENSIC SCIENCE TIMELINE Mathieu Orfila Francis Galton Hans Gross Alphonse Bertillon Albert Osborn Edmond Locard Leon Lattes Calvin Goddard J. Edgar Hoover Paul Kirk Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Mathieu Orfila: often called the father of toxicology.
-He worked to make chemical analysis a stable part
of forensic medicine, and made studies of asphyxiation,
the decomposition of bodies, and exhumation.
-He helped develop tests for the presence of blood n a
forensic context.
-Mathieu also worked to improve public health systems
and medical training.
-He was born a Spanish subject. Francis Galton
He was an English Victorian polymath, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, protogeneticist, psychometrician, and a statistician. He was knighted in 1909He was an investigator of the human mind. he also founded psychometrics.He devised a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science. Hans Gross: participated in military operations on the territory of Bosnia.He worked as an assistant of the prosecutor.Gross’ participants called him the father of criminalities and took a decision to include teaching criminalities in the curriculum of the law faculties.Hans founded the museum of communalistic in Gratz. Alphonse Bertillon: a French criminologist and anthropologist.
He created the first system of physical measurements, photography, and record keeping that police could use to identify recidivist criminals.
In 1883, the Parisian police adopted his anthropometric system.
Bertillon identified individuals by measurements of the head and body, shape formations of the ear, eyebrow, mouth, eye, etc. Albert Osborn was the first American to achieve prominence in the world of questioned document examination and forged document analysis.
He wrote the book Questioned Documents in 19210.
Osborn was the first American to utilize the scientific method in the examination of questioned documents.
He was able to make significant headway with the court system’s acceptance of expert testimony about forged documents as legal evidence in criminal trials. Edmond Locard was a French criminalist renowned from being a pioneer in forensic science and criminology.
He was know as the Sherlock holmes of France.
He published over 40 pieces of work and the most famous being his seven volume series traite de criminastique.
Locard worked as the assistant of Dr. alexandre lacassagne, and a few years later he began pursuing his career in law. Leon Lattes developed a procedure to apple blood testing to stains on fabric and other materials.
He also invented a way to test for antibodies in dried blood flakes as well.
He has assisted law enforcement in over 6000 investigations including that of O.J. Simpson.
He concentrated on the principal tests used to identify blood. Calvin Goddard: Founded the science of Firearms Identification and first applying it to help police solve the 1929 St. Valentines Day Massacre.
Headed the first independent forensic science crime laboratory.
Advised the FBI in 1932 when they set up a crime laboratory.
With his research the police solved the case of Sacco and Vanzetti. J edgar hoover: his methods included infiltration, burglaries, illegal wiretaps, and planted evidence, and his legacy is tainted because of it.
Hoover went from assistant in 1921 to director of the FBI in 1924.
Hoover in the 1930s exploited notorious gangsters, particularly John Dillinger.
He was well known for his anticommunist and anti-subversive view and activities in the 1940s and 19502. Paul Kirk was a leader in establishing criminology as an academic discipline.
He worked as a professor at the university of California (UCB)
He wrote the groundbreaking textbook Crime Investigation.
Kirk became most known for his work as a microchemist. Doyle was born on May 22, 1859 in Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1876 he graduated at the age of seventeen. He was known to be funny and athletic having ruled out any feeling of self-pity, Arthur was ready and willing to face the world and make up for some of his father’s shortcomings. He once said” Perhaps it was good for me that the times were hard, for I was wild, full blooded and a trifle reckless. This inspired all of his amazing books, including the series of Sherlock Holmes and many other books. Forensic Cases 1.Ted Bundy Ted Bundy was thought b have a murder count for an estimated 30, there was little evidence to connect him to the crimes when he was arrested in 1975. He killed three more people early in 1978, and when he was finally captured in February of that year, the physical evidence in those cases led to his conviction. Bundy was put to death in 1989. This updated the physical department of forensic labs everywhere in the area
2. The Lindbergh Kidnapping.On March 1, 1932, Charles Lindbergh Jr. was kidnapped. A ransom of $50,000 was paid and the child was still never returned. His body was discovered in May just a couple of miles from his home. The tracking of the money was soon lead to While Hauptmann. Forensic research connected the wood in Hauptmann's attic to the wood used in the homemade ladder that the kidnappers built to reach the child's bedroom window. Hauptmann was convicted and sentenced to death in 1936. This case helped forensic find more ways to track people. 3. The Atlanta Child Murders. Between 1979 and 1981 29 people most of them were children, were strangled by a serial killer. Police stacked out the river, where other bodies were dumped. They heard a splash and saw a truck drive away. They were soon leading to Wayne Williams. Most of the evidence was gather from forensic science, that used fibers found on the victims. The evidence was later linked to items from Williams' house, his vehicles and even his dog. In 1982, he was convicted of killing two adult victims and sentenced to life in prison. The Atlanta police announced that Williams was responsible for at least 22 of the child murders after he was convicted. This case helped the people to be more focused and protected. 4. The Howard Hughes Hoax In 1970, authors Clifford Irving and Richard Suskind thought of a scheme to forge an autobiography of notoriously eccentric and reclusive billionaire Howard Hughes. As proof, Irving produced forged letters that he claimed were from Hughes. The editor agreed, paying $765,000 for the right to publish the book. When the book was published Hughes contacted reporters to denounce it as false. Although the notes that Irving had forged had previously fooled a handwriting expert, the voice analyst correctly identified the speaker as Hughes. Clifford spent 17 months in prison, while Suskind spent five. Irving later wrote a book about the scheme, The Hoax, which became a movie in 2008. This case made the department of document forensics to gain more experience. 5. The Night Stalker In June 1984 and August 1985, a Southern California serial killer called the Night Stalker broke into victims' houses as they slept and attacked. He murdering 13 and assaulting numerous others. One person was looking outside their window and was a spooky car and they wrote down the license plate. The police found the car abandoned. They found a fingerprint on the set of keys using in the car. Investigators quickly matched the print to 25-year-old Richard Ramirez. Within a week, Ramirez was recognized and captured by local citizens. He is sentence to death but currently sit in jail. This case make the people be on more of an alert and more active in the society. 6. Machine Gun Kelly George "Machine Gun" Kelly was a known for bootlegging, kidnapping and armed robbery. A kidnapping occurred in the area of Kelly, after a series of ransom notes and communications, a $200,000 ransom was paid which is the largest amount ever paid in a kidnapping to date. He was soon released unharmed a couple of weeks later. Using his memories, the FBI pinpointed the likely location in which Urschel was held to a farm owned by Kelly's father-in-law. What truly linked Kelly and his gang to the kidnapping, though, was Urschel's fingerprints. Kelly was sentenced to life in prison, where he died in 1954. This case made the fingerprinting department stick out a lot in the Labs. 7. The Green River KillerThe Green River Killer was responsible for at least 48 but possibly close to 90. Most of the killings occurred in 1982-83, and the victims were almost all prostitutes. It wasn't until 2001 that new DNA techniques spurred the reexamination of evidence that incriminated Ridgway. He was arrested and later confessed. Ridgway pleaded guilty to 48 murders. He then later confessing to even more, which remain unconfirmed.He was sentenced to 48 life sentences without the possibility of parole. This helped advance studies in DNA and other identification solvers. 8. BTK KillerThe BTK ("Bind, Torture, Kill") Killer was a serial killer who terrorized the Wichita, Kansas. He murdered 10 people when he was alive. He stopped killing for a while but then he resurfaced in 2004 with a series of communications. He chose to send a computer floppy disk to the Wichita Eagle. Forensic analysts traced the deleted data on the disk to a man named Dennis at the Christ Lutheran Church in Wichita. It didn't take long for the police to arrest Dennis Rader, who confessed and was sentenced to nine life terms in prison. This case made investigators focus more on the computer more than anything
else in this case. 9. Jeffrey MacDonaldEarly in the morning of February 17, 1970, the family of Army doctor Jeffrey MacDonald was attacked, leaving the doctor's pregnant wife and two young daughters dead from multiple stab wounds. Several years later, MacDonald was brought to trial in a civilian court. Evidence was provided by a forensic scientist who testified that the doctor's pajama top, they were 48 smooth holes, which couldn’t have been from an attacker. The holes matched the pattern of the stabs on his wife. This crime scene reconstruction was crucial in MacDonald's conviction in 1979. He was sentenced to life in prison for the three murders. This case proves that forensics will always be able to catch the criminial. 10. John JoubertIn 1983, two murders of schoolboys rocked the Omaha, Nebraska area. The body of one of the boys was found tied with a type of rope that investigators couldn't identify. While following up on the lead of a mysterious man scouting out a school, they traced the suspect's license plate to John Joubert. In his belongings, they found a rope matching the unusual one used in the murder (which turned out to be Korean). Hair from one of the victims was found in Joubert's car. The child killer was even linked to a third murder, in Maine, when his teeth were found to match bite marks on a boy killed in 1982. Joubert was found guilty of all three murders and was put to death in the electric chair in 1996. This case proved how much a good witness can help out a case. Departments of Forensics

Physical Science Unit: Applies the principles and techniques of Chemistry Physics Geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence

Biology Unit: Identifies dried bloodstains and body fluids Compares hairs and fibers Identifes and compares botanical materials such as wood and plants Performs DNA analysis.

Firearms Unit: examines Firearms Discharged bullets Cartridge cases Shotgun shells Ammunition of all types Document

Examination Unit:Analyzes handwriting, paper and printers of documents Photography Unit: Examines and records physical evidence at the crime scene and at suspects' locations

Toxicology Unit: Examines body fluids and organs in order to determine the presence and identification of drugs and poisons

Latent Fingerprint Unit:Processes and examines evidence for latent fingerprints

Polygraph Unit: Uses lie detectors, an essential tool of the crime investigator rather than the forensic scientist

Voiceprint Analysis Unit: Involved in cases of telephone threats or tape-recorded messagesInvestigators may be able to connect a voice to a particular suspect
Evidence-Collection Unit: Incorporates evidence collection into a total forensic science service Works Cited
"American Academy of Forensic Sciences."
American Academy of Forensic Sciences. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://www.aafs.org/>.
"Calvin H. Goddard Award." Calvin H. Goddard Award. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://www.goddardaward.com/>.
"Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.com." BIO. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://www.bio.com/>.
"Forensic Science Central." - Edmond Locard. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://forensicsciencecentral.co.uk/edmondlocard.shtml>.
"Hans Gross." Hans Gross. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://www.criminaldep.chnu.edu.ua/en/history/hans_gross.html>.
"Kirk, Paul Leland." Enotes.com. Enotes.com. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://www.enotes.com/kirk-paul-leland-reference/kirk-paul-leland>.
"Osborn, Albert Sherman." Enotes.com. Enotes.com. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://www.enotes.com/osborn-albert-sherman-reference/osborn-albert-sherman>.
"Serology." : It's in the Blood â â Crime Library on truTV.com. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/criminal_mind/forensics/serology/3.html>.
"Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Biographies: Mathieu Joseph Bonaventure Orfila (1787–1853)." U.S National Library of Medicine. 19 July 2012. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 06 Sept. 2012 <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/biographies/orfila.html>. BY : SCOTT DREWITT
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