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Khalid Elhariri

on 3 June 2016

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Future Work
Introduction to mobile communication:
What is LTE?
1- It's Long Term Evolution.
2- It's a Digital Technology Based on Cellular Concept.
3- it's based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access in DL
and in UL SC-FDMA(Single Carrier FDMA).
4- Can work on multiple bands like (700,900,1800,1900,2100,2800 to 40 band because of Cognitive radio.
5- Channel BW up to 20MHz (1.4,3,5,10,15,20 MHz).
6- it use Packet Switching & IPV6.
7- Applications "HD Video Call" , "HD Video Streaming" , "Mobile TV and IPTV".
8- up to 300M bps.
Presented by:
Khaled Abdul-Kader Mahmoud Elhariri
Ahmed Gameil Abood Ali
Ahmed Eid Hassan
Hossam El-Din Mohamed Abd El-Aziz
Mohamed Mostafa Abd El-Hamied
Mohamed Eliwa Sobhy
Karem Gamal Abo Hamad
Comparison between Network structures:
Under supervision of:
Prof.Dr: Talaat El-Garf
We would like to show our greatest appreciation to Prof.Dr. Talaat ElGarf. We
can't say thank you enough for his tremendous support and help. We felt
motivated and encouraged every time we attended his meeting, as he inspired
us greatly to work in this project. He always intended to motivate, teach and
help us who contributed tremendously to our project. Seriously Without his
encouragement and guidance this project would not have materialized.

Besides, we would like to thank the authority of the Higher Technological
Institute (HTI) for providing us with a good environment and facilities to
complete this project.

Also, we would like to take this opportunity to thank 3 Hands Company as they
taught us patiently and honestly, for all their valuable guidance and their sincere
intention to offer maximum possible assistance.
The aim of this project is to automate the Optimization process of the 4G networks by developing a complete END to END software tool using C# to implement the Son Algorithm & Equations for Reaching Target which is Balance Coverage, Capacity and Performance automatically to give us a better user experience.
1- Introduction to mobile communication.
2- Mobile generations.
3- LTE Technology.
Network Structure.
4- LTE Optimization.
5- SON.
Cellular mobile systems:
Multiplexing and Multiple Access techniques:
Duplexing techniques:
Up link: the transmission from user to the base station.
Down link: the transmission from the base station to the user.
Comparison between mobile generations:
Frequency reuse.
Reuse distance.
Increase capacity.
Types of duplex tech.
LTE Targets:
1- Improve LTE Throughput 10x.
times than HSPA.
2- Reduce Latency by 2 or 3 times
than HSPA.
3- Improve Spectral efficiency because of using OFDMA Technology.
How did they reduce the Latency?
How did they improve the spectral efficiency?
In terms of using OFDMA Technology, no guard band required and lot of carriers can withstand without any interference.
How did they Improve the Throughput?
C= Blog2(1+SNR)
Adaptive modulation
2. 16QAM
3. 64QAM
Serial data
Serial to
Sub carrier
F -> T
T -> F
Parallel to
Serial data
MIMO (Multiple in Multiple Out):


Handover latency reduce:
X2 Interface
Advantage of OFDMA:
Disadvantage of OFDMA:

Increasing PAVR

Doppler frequency shift
Higher bit rates.
Higher bandwidth efficiency .
Anti fading system ( more than one sub carrier for one user).
(2x2 or 4x4)
Channel B.W
is up to 20MHZ
and it's Selectable
New elements
Up to 300 Mbps
Network Architecture:
What is the meaning of optimization?
RF optimization starts after all sites in a planned area installed and verified. RF optimization aims to control & optimizing the signal coverage, increase handover success rate ensure normal distribution of radio signals before parameter optimization. RF optimization involves optimization, adjusting the antenna system hardware and neighbor lists. The first RF optimize test must traverse all cells in an area to rectify hardware faults.
Why optimization?
1- Inaccuracy radio planning:
Statical variations in the path loss characteristics.
Finite terrain database resolution.
2- Implementation:
Antenna radiation pattern and effective radiated power.
Antenna radiation distortion.
3- Environment:
Seasonal environmental changes, e.g trees, leaves.
Environmental changes such as a new high ways, new building.
Optimization objectives:
Finding and correcting any existing problems after site implementation and integration.
Meeting the network quality criteria agreed in the contract.
Optimization will be continuous and iterative process of improving overall network quality.
Optimization can not reduce the performance of the rest of the network.
Area of interest is divided in smaller areas called clusters to make optimization and follow up processes easier to handle.
Network Optimization methods:
Planning & Optimization relationship:
Network analysis:
Tools are used to extract a raw counters in statistical form (e.g: making pivot chart) to analyze the KPIs.
Log files: analysis using TEMS (Drive test Tool)
Parameters: Tuning to improve KPIs as mentioned:
a. CDR (Call drop rate).
b. RRC Congestion & RAB Congestion.
c. HoSR (Handover success rate).

LTE Optimization problems:
1- Congestion due to:
No resources.
Transmisson IUP.
Power congestion .
2- Radio due to low quality.
Types of congestion:
1- Soft congestion.
2- Hard congestion.
and the requests of RAB and RRC and Handover increase the congestion & radio problem rates. so optimizers must be decrease congestion and expect before it happen.
the most problems are 95% congestion and 5% radio.
2- Radio due low quality:
due to interference and path loss.
RRC requests:
RRC stands for Radio Resource Control. As we know whenever UE needs resources from UTRAN network, it requests for the same. UE needs resources when it wants to establish either or PS call. In order to do this following three steps are performed as shown in the figure.
RAB Requests:
RAB stands for Radio Access Bearer. AS entity provides NAS to take care of information transfer between UE and Core Network(CN). This is known as RAB.
RAB = SRB (Signaling) + RB (Traffic).
Neighbour management:
Intra freq neighbour.
inter freq neighbour.
inter/RAT freq neighbour.
Handover Events:
Handover Decision
Handover Procedure
A3 Event:
Handover Failures:
Unnecessary handover
Ping Pongs.
Short stays/rapid handovers.

Too Late H.O.
Too Early H.O.
Wrong Cell
Key performance Index: it's used to check Performance of network.
Classification of KPI:
Drive test KPI/Stationary test: some KPIs should be attained by drive test, such as attach latency, Handover latency ...
Performance measurement KPI: most of KPIs are attained by this approach, such as RRC, HHO Success rate ...
Functions of performance measurement data:
The basis of network optimization.
Evaluation standard for network optimization.
Evaluation standard for network expansion.
CDR First Major KPI:
to decrease the percentage of call drop rate
a- we can decrease abnormal releases
through increase power or enhance radio condition by
pushing a good band.
b- or we can increase RAB Seizers
increase good traffic change RXmin to low value.
or change idle mode parameters.
HoSR Second Major KPI:
to increase Handover success rate
- Increase no. of successful users or decrease attempts.
through handover freq selection parameters
to manage the traffic.

RRC & RAB Congestion 3rd Major KPIs:
We can decrease each RRC & RAB Congestion through cell reselection
What is the meaning of SON:
Self optimizing networks
it's a software code that can implemented on a practical network to improve performance automatically, also we can describe (SON) as a product automates the process of optimizing the capacity, coverage and quality of mobile networks.
Main drivers of SON:
1. The number and structure of network parameters have become large and complex.
2. Quick evolutions of wireless networks has led to parallel operations of 2G,3G and EPC infrastructures.
3. The rapidly expanding number of Base stations (especially Home eNB) needs to be configured and managed with the least possible human interaction.
4. Some processes are repetitive while others are too fast or difficult to be performed manually.
SON Implementation Results:
This tool was developed by: C#
Why did we use C# to implement the tool ?
C# is more type safe.
good at memory usage.
Ease to development, The rich of class library makes many functions easy to be implemented.

Practical implementation:
First, we developed this tool to improve the most effective and major KPIs (RRC,RAB Congestion, HoSR,CDR) through actions like changing parameters such as Preamble power level, Sinterfreq/HO, Sintrafreq/HO,Sintrafreq and Sinterfreq/RAT and it can works as a simulator and as SON.

First KPI HoSR Enhancement:
Second, we have about 500 cells each of them operate with
2 carriers F1 & F2 And we have the imported data from each cell that contains
( RRC congestion & RAB congestion & HOSR& CDR)
The all cells degradated on 10/5/2016, so we took these actions:

The major parameters which are effective and it can increase the Handover Success rate are Sinterfreq/HO and Sintrafreq/HO.

Second KPI CDR Enhancement:
The major parameter which is effective and it can decrease the Call drop rate is preamble power.
3rd KPI RAB Congestion Enhancement:
The major parameter which is effective and it can decrease the RAB Congestion is SintraFreq.
4th KPI RRC Congestion Enhancement:
The major parameter which is effective and it can decrease the RRC Congestion is SinterFreq/RAT.
C# Code:
RAB Congestion:
RRC Congestion:
Thanks for watching
Any questions ??
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