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Native American Groups
Transcript of Native American Groups
Pre-Classic: started hieroglyphics
Classic: building structures, observatories, calendars, society divided into Independent States
Native American Groups
Mayan civilization reached its height between 300 and 900 C.E.
Mayan culture spread across Meso-America
Mayans built their culture off of that of the Olmecs.
Olmecs: Developed Farming with crops Corn/Maize, permanent settlements, trading routes, religious centers, & solar calendar
1.Ruler: Ruled w/ help of advisers, Determine when to go to war, god like King,
2. Nobles/ Priests: N-Knew how to read/write, scribes,officials,oversaw the administration of the states. They gathered taxes, supplies, labor for projects, such as the construction of temples.led peasant armies in times of war. P-Maintain favor w/ gods
3.Merchnats/Artisans: Depended on farming but were accomplished traders.
designed many things to pay tribute to gods.
4. Peasants: Backbone to Mayan society. Worked hard on the land. Women worked at home preparing the house. Build temples and pyramids
5. Slaves: Born into slavery and free ppl cld become slaves. Life was sometime easier then a peasants life. No mistreated
Believed in many gods. The primary Mayan gods
were forces or objects in nature that affected people’s daily lives, such as rain, corn, and death.The jaguar was especially important to the Mayas.
The Mayas believed that the gods had created the world and could influence or even destroy it. The Mayas honored their gods with offerings such as plants, food, flowers, feathers, jade, and shells. The Mayas believed that blood gave the gods strength, so they also made blood offerings by sacrificing animals and, sometimes, humans. The people who were sacrificed were usually orphans, slaves, or nobles captured during war.
The first was a daily calendar, based on the solar
(sun) year. It divided the year into 18 months of 20 days each, plus 5 “unlucky” days. This totaled 365 days, as our calendar does.
The second calendar was the sacred, or ritual, calendar. The Sacred Round was based on 13 months of 20 days each, making 260 days in all. It had two cycles that worked together to identify a particular day. One cycle was made up of the numbers 1 to 13. The other cycle was a set of 20 day names. Each of the day names represented a particular god.
Other structures in the plaza included more shrines,temples, the ritual ball court, military storehouses, guest rooms for important visitors. Just outside the plaza stood the royal palace. The two-story palace seemed like a small town. The palace was the home of the Aztec ruler, but it also had government offices, shrines, courts, storerooms, gardens, and courtyards. Wild animals captured throughout the empire, such as pumas and jaguars, prowled cages in the royal zoo.
The city’s main marketplace was located in the northern section. Each day, as many as sixty thousand people came from all corners of the Aztec Empire to sell their wares. A thousand workers swept and washed down the streets each day, keeping them cleaner than streets in European cities. At night, pine torches lit the way. People also traveled on foot on smaller walkways or by canoe on the canals that crossed the city.Many of the canals were lined with stone and had bridges.
The causeways were 25 to 30 feet wide. They all had wooden bridges that could be raised to let boats through or to protect the city in an enemy attack.
Collecting tribute was the empire’s most vital business. Warfare was the center of Aztec life. Successful battles allowed the Aztecs to increase their sources of tribute. They also gained additional territory, laborers, and sacrificial victims.
First, the Aztecs asked a city to join the empire as an ally. The city had 60 days to agree. If the city's ruler refused, the Aztecs declared war. Most wars ended after one battle, usually with an Aztec victory. Afterward, the Aztecs brought the soldiers they had captured to Tenochtitlán. Some became slaves, but most ended up as sacrifices.
Aztecs arrived, in the mid-1200s C.E., Two earlier groups, in particular, had built civilizations there that strongly influenced the Aztecs.
Aztecs- Group of hunter-gathers, fierce Warriors
It was here, the Aztecs said, that
they spotted an eagle perched
atop a cactus with a long snake
in its beak. The Aztecs took this
as a sign that they should stay in
this place, and set to work
building the city they called