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Transcript of MOTIVATION
NATURE OF MOTIVATION
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
an individual's internal feeling
a continuous process
a complex process
changes from time to time
different from satisfaction
Saturday, January 17, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Motive - Motivation
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
M O T I V A T I O N
need, desire, goals, wants of an individual
The process that account for an individual's
intensity, direction and persistence
toward attaining a goal
- how hard a person tries
- toward beneficial goal
how long a person tries
Positive/ Incentive Motivation
- based on rewards
- praise and credit for work
- wages and salaries
- pull mechanism
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Negative/ Fear Motivation
- based force or fear
- push mechanism
A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge and personal satisfaction.
It comes from outside the person and includes such things as money, bonuses and other tangible rewards
- Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become motivators
- A need that is satisfied no longer serves as a motivator
- There are more ways to satisfy higher-level needs than there are ways to satisfy lower-level needs
A variation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Both similar to and different from Maslow's.
Satisfied and unsatisfied needs operate in much the same way.
Movement upward is the same.
- provision of basic material requirements
- desire for relationship
- desire for personal development
The theory argues that:
motivation factors or motivators
are the primary causes of motivation and address the question
"Why work harder?"
are the necessary conditions to achieve a state of neutrality and address the question
"Why work here?"
Company policy and administration
Unhappy relationship with employee's supervisor
Poor interpersonal relations with one's peers
Poor working conditions
Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
Theory X and Theory Y
It proposes that organizations follow one of two proposes in their management of people.
Theory X and Theory Y are two sets of assumption about the nature of people.
The average employee does not like work and will attempt to avoid it.
As employees are lazy they do not want responsibility and have no ambition.
Individuals prefer to be directed and want security above everything else.
Individuals need to be closely supervised and controlled.
Hygiene factors - the sources of dissatisfaction
Individuals exercise self-control and self-direction to achieve objectives that they are committed to. Threats of punishment are unnecessary.
The rewards of achievement generate commitment to employees.
If individuals are given freedom there is opportunity to increase productivity.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Clayton Alderfer's ERG
David McClelland's Theory
We each have a hierarchy of needs that ranges from "lower" to "higher". As lower needs are fulfilled there is a tendency for other higher needs to emerge.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Challenging, varied or interesting work
Intrinsic factors (content of work)
Extrinsic factors (context of work)
Thank you for your undivided attention!
More than one need can be operative at the same time
If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy lower-level need increases