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MOTIVATION

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Lee delos Santos

on 11 January 2015

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Transcript of MOTIVATION

One can purchase a man's time, his physical presence, but can't buy his willingness to work.
NATURE OF MOTIVATION
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
an individual's internal feeling

a continuous process

a complex process

changes from time to time

different from satisfaction
$1.25
Saturday, January 17, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Motive - Motivation
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
M O T I V A T I O N
motive
motivation
need, desire, goals, wants of an individual
The process that account for an individual's
intensity, direction and persistence

of effort
toward attaining a goal
Key Elements
Intensity
- how hard a person tries
Direction
- toward beneficial goal
Persistence -
how long a person tries
Positive/ Incentive Motivation
- based on rewards
- praise and credit for work
- wages and salaries
- appreciation
- pull mechanism
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Negative/ Fear Motivation
- based force or fear
- push mechanism
MOTIVATORS
Intrinsic Motivators
A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge and personal satisfaction.
Extrinsic Motivators
It comes from outside the person and includes such things as money, bonuses and other tangible rewards
- Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become motivators

- A need that is satisfied no longer serves as a motivator

- There are more ways to satisfy higher-level needs than there are ways to satisfy lower-level needs

Higher-order needs
satisfied internally
Lower-order needs
satisfied externally
ERG Theory
Clayton Alderfer
A variation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Both similar to and different from Maslow's.

Satisfied and unsatisfied needs operate in much the same way.

Movement upward is the same.
Existence
- provision of basic material requirements

Relatedness

- desire for relationship

Growth
- desire for personal development
Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Frederick Herzberg
The theory argues that:

The
motivation factors or motivators

are the primary causes of motivation and address the question
"Why work harder?"

The
hygiene factors
are the necessary conditions to achieve a state of neutrality and address the question
"Why work here?"

Company policy and administration
Unhappy relationship with employee's supervisor
Poor interpersonal relations with one's peers
Poor working conditions
Motivators - the sources of satisfaction
Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor
It proposes that organizations follow one of two proposes in their management of people.
Theory X and Theory Y are two sets of assumption about the nature of people.
Theory X
The average employee does not like work and will attempt to avoid it.

As employees are lazy they do not want responsibility and have no ambition.

Individuals prefer to be directed and want security above everything else.

Individuals need to be closely supervised and controlled.
Hygiene factors - the sources of dissatisfaction
Theory Y
Individuals exercise self-control and self-direction to achieve objectives that they are committed to. Threats of punishment are unnecessary.

The rewards of achievement generate commitment to employees.

If individuals are given freedom there is opportunity to increase productivity.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Herzberg's Motivation-
Hygiene Theory
Clayton Alderfer's ERG
Theory
David McClelland's Theory
of Needs
Abraham
Maslow
We each have a hierarchy of needs that ranges from "lower" to "higher". As lower needs are fulfilled there is a tendency for other higher needs to emerge.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Achievement
Recognition
Challenging, varied or interesting work
Responsibility
Advancement
Intrinsic factors (content of work)
Extrinsic factors (context of work)
Core needs:
Thank you for your undivided attention!
Concept:
More than one need can be operative at the same time
If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy lower-level need increases
Full transcript