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Envi Sci - Water Ecosystems

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by

Teresa Friedrichsen

on 7 June 2016

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Transcript of Envi Sci - Water Ecosystems

tidal- 7 min
hydrothermal vent
Ross Sea Antarctica
5 min. estuaries
wetlands- Bill Nye
river - 9 min
coral reef
only substance on earth found naturally in 3 forms (solid, liquid, gas)
66% of human body
water needed to produce
a loaf of bread (150 gal)
a tomato (3 gal)
a chicken (400 gal)
Water trivia
groundwater
surface
2% - glaciers
1%
brackish
freshwater – 3%
saltwater – 97%
Hydrosphere
Definition: The transfer of water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the oceans.
Water cycle :
EVAPORATION:
liquid water becomes gas
increases water in atmosphere
from surface water, soil, animals
TRANSPIRATION
loss of water from plants
increases water in atmosphere
CONDENSATION:
Cool air holds less water than warm air
As air cools water droplets condense and collide forming raindrops or snow flakes
PRECIPITATION
flows over surface of land as runoff to become surface water in lakes, ponds, streams

infiltrates (sinks into) soil to become part of the groundwater
which finally flows underground to rivers/lakes/oceans

Water table – upper surface of groundwater
Aquifer – underground zone where water is located – made of rocks, sand, & gravel
Groundwater
How a Convection Cell Works
Sun warms the earth and the air right above the earth
Warm air expands because heat causes molecules to spread out
Warm air rises because it’s lighter and less dense than cooler air
Air cools as it rises because it’s getting further from the earth
Droplets of water molecules (vapor) in the air condense to form larger and larger drops
Clouds form and rain or snow falls to earth
Cold air sinks because molecules are closer together and thus more dense
Cold air sinks to the side of the rising warm air because they can’t occupy the same space
Cold air warms as it gets closer to the earth and the cycle repeats
Wind Map
OCEAN
Covers 70% of Earth’s surface
SALINITY of oceans
averages 3.5% salt by weight
% increases (salt is left behind)
http://blue.utb.edu/paullgj/geog3333/lectures/oceancurrents-1.gif
Ocean currents
SURFACE OCEAN CURRENTS
Mainly caused by winds and rotation of earth
Also affected by tides, water density, shape of ocean floor, & land masses
Redistribute warm and cold masses of water
Can contain warm OR cold water, but they don't mix
Deep Ocean Mysteries & Wonders: Ted Ed - 8 min
Deep Ocean currents
is caused by 2 factors:
a. Uneven solar heating
b. Rotation of the earth on its axis
Global Wind Circulation
a. Uneven solar heating
Causes air to rise at the equator
Air cools, drops rain, and descends at 30 N & S because it can’t descend where air is rising
hot air less dense, low pressure
cold air more dense, high pressure
Winds are caused by the movement of air from high pressure areas to low pressure areas
This is what global winds would look like if only uneven heating was the cause.
Rotation of the Earth
Separates troposphere into six cells, three in each hemisphere
Skews winds to the east or west in the cells
Winds are named for direction from which they start
b. Rotation of the Earth
Separates atmosphere into six cells, three in each hemisphere
Skews winds to the east or west in the cells
Winds are named for direction from which they start
coriolis effect
This is what the winds look like with uneven heating AND rotation of the earth
very cold & dense water
starts at poles & moves VERY slowly towards equator
stop at girl singing - 5 min
deep sea habitat- 18 min
marine plankton
lake turn over - spring
lake turn over - fall
Exploring the oceans - 18 min - Ted Ed - fabulous
Salinity of fish & habitats:
marine: 3.5%
fish: 1%
freshwater: 0.3%
solute = total dissolved particles
diffusion of water
across a semi-permeable membrane
a. same [water]
b. higher [water] outside
c. higher [water] inside
osmoregulators
example: fish
how do marine & freshwater fish differ?
osmoconformers
keep internal [solute] the same as the environment, usually marine invertebrate animals
Water absorbs & releases heat more slowly than land – thus the ocean keeps temperatures from getting too extreme on Earth
Absorbs 50% of sun’s radiation to Earth
Physical features of oceans vary – contain Earth’s highest peaks, deepest valleys, & flattest plains
where evaporation is high
where seawater freezes (ice & vapor can’t hold salt!)
where rivers meet oceans
where precipitation is high
% decreases
freshwater
saltwater
Arctic Ocean research
3 min wetlands
7 min coral reefs
3 min how lakes cycle
4 min bozeman osmoregulation
5 min Gulf Stream & Thermohaline Circulation
4.5 min 2 wks underwater
4 min sci show limnic eruptions
9 min amoeba osmosis
10.5 min 7 ocean mysteries
Full transcript