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Solar Project!!

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Brianna Miles

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Solar Project!!

By Brianna Miles Solar Power The radiation zone or radiative zone is a layer of a star's interior where energy is primarily transported toward the exterior by means of radiative diffusion, rather than by convection. Energy travels through the radiation zone in the form of electromagnetic radiation as photons. Science of the Sun The surface of the Sun is very hot, It’s so hot that hydrogen becomes ionised into plasma so that you have photons and electrons as separate bodies, rather than bound together into atoms. And as those different charges interact, they exchange energy at the surface of the Sun and in the process of saving energy, they can lose energy and that is radiated as the photons that we see. That isn't what drives luminosity of the Sun though. That is the fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium which occurs at the core of the Sun. In fact, only in the central 20% or so of the Sun and so, you have another process which is convection which is carrying that heat which is generated at the centre of the sun out of the surface to keep the surface hot so that it continues to shine. Photons! As early as the fourth century B.C.E. the Greek philosopher Socrates set forth a number of principles for passive solar design, including orienting buildings in ways to utilize the sun’s heat in the winter and to minimize its impact in the summer.
In 1515, Leonardo da Vinci sketched plans for a parabolic mirror that could be used to concentrate the sun’s energy to heat a boiler.
In 1860 the French mathematician Auguste Mouchout went on to develop the first solar motor. Mouchout’s device tracked the sun and focused its rays onto a boiler assembly to produce a small steam engine.
Discovery of the element selenium by Swedish chemists Jakob Berzelius and J. G. Gahn in 1818. A number of scientists found that one of the properties of selenium was its mysterious ability to produce small amounts of electricity when exposed to light. History of harnessing the Sun! Charles Fritts was the American inventor credited with creating the first working solar cell in 1883.
Fritts coated the semiconductor material selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold. The resulting cells had a conversion electrical efficiency of only about 1% owing to the properties of selenium, which in combination with the material's high cost prevented the use of such cells for energy supply. Selenium cells found other applications however, for example as light sensors for exposure timing in photo cameras, where they were common well into the 1960s.

Solar cells later became practical for power uses after Russell Ohl's 1941 development of silicon p/n junction cells that reached efficiencies above 5% by the 1950s/1960s.

Today's best silicon solar cells are over 20% efficient, with industrial average over 13%.[1] First Solar Cell How they work now Today, many new homes are being built with a solar array on the roof that’s less obvious than those enormous panels of the past. Today’s solar panels can convert more energy with less space, making them smaller and more unobtrusive. Solar homes The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 solar radius. It is the hottest part of the Sun and of the Solar System. The convection zone of a star is the range of radii in which energy is transported primarily by convection. In the radiation zone, energy is transported by radiation. Stellar convection consists of mass movement of plasma within the star which usually forms a circular convection current with the heated plasma ascending and the cooled plasma descending. The photosphere of an astronomical object is the region from which externally received light originates. It extends into a star's surface until the gas becomes opaque, equivalent to an optical depth of approximately 2/3. In other words, a photosphere is the deepest region of a luminous object, usually a star, that is transparent to photons of certain wavelengths. The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of colour") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 2,000 kilometers deep. It sits just above the photosphere and just below the solar transition region. A corona is a type of plasma "atmosphere" of the Sun or other celestial body, extending millions of kilometers into space, most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but also observable in a coronagraph. The word "corona" itself derived from the Latin, meaning crown, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κορώνη meaning "garland" or "wreath". Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions. They are caused by intense magnetic activity, which inhibits convection by an effect comparable to the eddy current brake, forming areas of reduced surface temperature Granules on the photosphere of the Sun are caused by convection currents (thermal columns, Bénard cells) of plasma within the Sun's convective zone. The grainy appearance of the solar photosphere is produced by the tops of these convective cells and is called granulation. A prominence is a large, bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface, often in a loop shape. Prominences are anchored to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's corona. How Solar Cells Work!!! Installing a solar array on your roof is not as expensive as many expect it to be. 15 states now use money from “public benefit funds” to help subsidize renewable energy programs, and 24 states offer significant rebates to people who install solar panels on their roofs. In New Jersey and New York, the rebate program compensates homeowners for up to 70% of installation costs. work by converting sunlight into electric energy. Each PV panel is composed of a group of solar cells made of a semiconductive material, often crystalline silicon, which absorbs light with great efficiency. Panels are constructed in layers. Most panels have a clear protective layer at the top, a few layers of conductive cells, and a bottom layer of polymer backing. Off-grid systems are more expensive; many builders estimate about $15,000-$20,000 per kilowatt hour. This sounds expensive, except when you consider that utility companies charge around $20,000 to $80,000 per mile to extend a power line. Refrigerator (2002 or newer): $8.78 / month
Refrigerator (pre-2002, frost-free): $17.99 / month
Television (21-inch color): 3¢ / hr
Room space heater (1500 watt): 16¢ / hr
Clothes dryer (electric): 29¢ / load
Water heater (for average family of 4): $42.84 / month Appliance Energy usage 6,000 kWh electricity plus 12,000 kWh gas equivalent = 18,000 kWh per year. On a sunny day, the solar panels will be able to generate up to 10 MW of electrical power for the local community. In addition to generating renewable energy, the structure will also shelter visitors from the hot sun Taiwan's dragon-shaped arena is the perfect example of the scalability of solar power. Designed by Toyo Ito, this 50,000 seat area generates 100% of its electricity from photovoltaic technology through its 8,844 solar panels that illuminate the track and field with 3,300 lux Solar paint entails a nanoscale mixture of photovoltaic components that can be painted or sprayed on to any number of surfaces to create cheap, efficient solar cells. The first spacecraft to use solar panels was the Vanguard 1 satellite, launched by the US in 1958. This was largely because of the influence of Dr. Hans Ziegler, who can be regarded as the father of spacecraft solar power. Most solar panels are around 11-15% efficient, the efficiency rating measures what percentage of sunlight hitting a panel gets turned into electricity that you can use. Solar Cell Efficiency Solar myths Solar doesn’t work in cool, cloudy, or foggy climates. Solar panels work just fine in ambient light and will produce significant energy in the fog or on overcast days. In fact, solar panels are actually more efficient at cooler temperatures than hot ones. How much sunlight reaches earth? Sunlight striking Earth provides 1.336 per square meter (assuming no clouds). the largest Solar PV plant in the U.S. This 83,000 square foot solar array produces more than 1 megawatt of power for the Sonoma Mountain Village development. Hayword, California based, OptiSolar are trying their best to build the world’s largest solar photovoltaic farm (550-megawatt) 100 miles north of Los Angeles in San Luis Obispo County. My opinion Socrates Leonardo de Vinci Auguste Mouchout Jakob Berzelius
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