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Copy of Physics Assignment: Car Safety
Transcript of Copy of Physics Assignment: Car Safety
Crumple zones were first introduced in the mid 1950’s by Mercedes-Benz.
They are designed to crumple in, as the name suggests, to absorb the energy produced in a crash. This energy and pressure is confined to the front of the car and doesn't travel to the passenger compartment. This means less pressure is extended onto the passengers which helps to avoid injury
Crumple zones' protection of occupants can mean up to a 75% reduction in the pressure and force that reaches the passengers
Again, it is Newton's First Law of Inertia that is acting in this feature
The seat belt as we know it today, the lap-and-shoulder, was first introduced in 1959 by Volvo
It was made legal that every passenger and driver in a car has to be wearing a seat belt in 1970, in Victoria.This was named the seat belt legislation. The rest of Australia only enforced this law in the following decade
Seat belts significantly lower the risk of a person sustaining injury from being vaulted out of their seat and through the windshield or onto the interior of the car in a collision
Due to not wearing a seat belt, Victorian records show around one in five vehicle occupants are killed each year
It is Newton’s First Law, the law of Inertia, that is in action during the use of the seat belt feature.
Air bags were invented in as early as 1941
However the the world’s first electromechanical automotive airbag system as we know it today, known as a “sensor and safety system”, was not invented until 1968
They were invented to be used with seat belts to increase safety
Airbags reduce the risk of injury to the passengers of a car by cushioning the occupant's head and torso from the hard plastic and metal of the dashboard and steering wheel which could be fatal.
It has been proven by a study by the Monash University Accident Research Centre that driver airbags reduce the severity of head injuries by 75%, facial injuries by 51%, neck injuries by 70% and chest injuries by 47%
Newton’s First Law - the law of Inertia, is the Newton's law that is in action during the use of an airbag
ABS (Anti Lock Braking System)
Anti lock breaking systems were used in automobiles in 1958 but had been first developed for aeroplane use in 1929
This system is a safety system that keeps the wheels from spinning out of control on the road, and helps the driver to avoid skidding when slowing down. It also gives the driver the ability to steer while stopping as it stops the wheels from locking up
Vehicles with ABS have been shown to be about 18% less likely to be in a multi-car crash than vehicles of the same model without ABS.
Both Newton’s First & Second Laws, the law of Inertia and Force = Mass x Acceleration, are in action during the use of the ABS feature.
ESC (Electronic Stability Control)
ESC systems were introduced into cars in 1995
This system is a technology used in the case of over-steering, sudden swerving, skidding or when road conditions suddenly change to help the driver remain in control of the vehicle
It reduces the chances of a crash dramatically by controlling the way the car moves and the level of erraticness of the car's movement.
ESC has been shown in Australian studies to reduce the risk of single car crash by 29% and single 4WD crashes by 51%. They also have cut crash fatality rates down by 50%
Again, Newton’s First Law, the law of Inertia, is in action during the use of electronic stability control
The modern electronic traction control systems have now been standard in most vehicles since the mid-late 1990’s. However before this, earlier versions of this system were developed in the early 1970’s
It is a secondary function to the anti lock braking systems (ABS), and is designed to get the most out of the stability and grip of a car on the road during acceleration.
This system stops the wheel spinning by reducing the engine power or by temporarily applying the brakes. This allows for a smoother acceleration
There has been at least a 12% reduction in collisions and accidents on wet roads due to traction control.
It is Newton’s First Law, the law of Inertia, that is in action during the use of this system.
The common, in-built roll cages we know today were first introduced and developed for road cars in the 1970’s
This feature is a constructed framework which is generally built into the passenger compartment of a car. This provides a stronger structure to protect car passengers during a roll-over and prevents injury by stopping the car from crushing inwards onto the occupants
The standard design is the roll bar. This is a single bar located behind the driver that gives the driver a level of protection during a roll-over
There are newer forms of roll cages such as the deployable roll hoops that are built in and hidden within the body of a vehicle. Sensors detect an imminent roll-over, and the roll hoops quickly descend and lock into place, which provides an stronger body to the car
Roll cages have been proven to be able to reduce fatality risk by up to 40%.
Force = Mass x Acceleration,Newton's Second Law is in action during the use of roll cages