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Leo Biggs

on 28 November 2014

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Transcript of Classification

Taxanomic classification is the science fo organizing living things into Domains, Kingdoms, Phylums, Classes, Orders, Families, Genus, and species.
All classifications are part of Domains.
Three Domains of Life
The Eukaryotes include organisms that most people are familiar with - all animals, plants, fungi, and protists. . They show unbelievable diversity in form, they share fundamental characteristics of cellular organization, biochemistry, and molecular biology.

a very large group of microorganisms comprising one of the three domains of living organisms. They are prokaryotic, unicellular, and either free-living in soil or water or parasites of plants or animals See also prokaryote
Any of a group of microorganisms that resemble bacteria but are different from them in certain aspects of their chemical structure, such as the composition of their cell walls. Archaea usually live in extreme, often very hot or salty environments, such as hot mineral springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents, but some are also found in animal digestive systems.
Protozoa or

most are single celled
Most can move some are stationary
Clasified into 4 types
Members of the protozoans that have a large whiplike projections that give the organism the abiligy to move and hunt.
In utah flagellates are at the base of the the food chain
A type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape. Movement is accomplished by extending and retracting pseudopods
A group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia
Cilia are typically shorter and present in much larger numbers than flagella
They are unicellular, spore-forming, and exclusively parasites of animals. Motile structures such as flagella or pseudopods are present only in certain gamete stages.
In Utah Polluted waters often have a rich and characteristic protozoan fauna. The relative abundance and diversity of protozoa are used as indicators of organic and toxic pollution.
In Utah this parasitic protozoan that causes the disease Toxoplasmosis gondii could be found in your catbox. T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals.

multicellular organisms
bodies full of pores
channels allows water to circulate through them,
Classified into 3 types
Asconoid sponges are shaped like a simple tube perforated by pores.
open internal part of the tube is called the spongocoel
Syconoid sponges tend to be larger than asconoids and have a tubular body with a single osculum. The synconoid body wall is thicker and the pores that penetrate it are longer
Leuconoid are the largest and most complex sponges. These sponges are made up of masses of tissue penetrated by numerous canals.
Canals lead to numerous small chambers lined with flagellated cells.
Sponges in Utah
The search of anti-cancer leads has been the mainstream of the marine natural product research. For many years, our research group at the University of Utah has focused on novel sponge metabolites with cytotoxic/antitumor activity.

Cnidaria comes from the Greek word "cnidos," which means stinging nettle.
All cnidarians are aquatic.
They have radial symmetry and tissues.
4 Major groups
Anthozoans are probably the most famous cnidarians: they include the corals that build great reefs in tropical waters, as well as sea anemones, sea fans, and sea pens.
They look like your basic jellyfish, but they can swim pretty fast, maneuver around things, and see fairly well despite not having a brain. Contain one of the deadliest of all toxins Believe it or not.
hydrozoans alternate between a polyp and a medusa stage — they spend part of their lives as "jellyfish"
Scyphozoans include most of the jellyfish familiar to beach-goers;
True jellyfish are graceful, and sometimes deadly creatures. Their stings may cause skin rashes, muscle cramps, or even death.
Cnidarians in Utah

In 2007 a group of scientists including Allen Collins from the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, discovered some beautifully-preserved jellyfish fossils buried in Utah from 505 million years ago.
Animal that lacks a coelom.
Exhibit bilateral symmetry
Possess one internal space,
Connection To Utah
Flatworms are unsegmented, bilaterally symmetrical worms that lack a coelom (acoelomate) but that do have three germ layers. Some forms are free living but many are parasitic.
Nemertines are known as "ribbon worms" because of the great length of many species;
Most nemertines are marine, but there are a few freshwater species, and even a few species that live in moist tropical habitats on land.
Body possesses no digestive tract (gut).
Body only two cell layers in most places.
Has some cells develop inside other cells.
Reproduction quite complex involving both sexual and asexual aspects.
All are endoparasites on other marine invertebrates.

Any of a group of invertebrates with a three-layered body that has a fluid-filled body cavity (pseudocoelom) between the endoderm and the mesoderm
Connection to Utah
Nematodes are the most numerous multicellular animals on earth. yet the vast majority of species encountered are poorly understood biologically. There are nearly 20,000 described species classified
Rotifers are microscopic aquatic animals of the phylum Rotifera. Rotifers can be found in many freshwater environments and in moist soil, where they inhabit the thin films of water that are formed around soil particles. The habitat of rotifers may include still water environments, such as lake bottoms, as well as flowing water environments, such as rivers or streams. Rotifers are also commonly found on mosses and lichens growing on tree trunks and rocks, in rain gutters and puddles, in soil or leaf litter, on mushrooms growing near dead trees, in tanks of sewage treatment plants, and even on freshwater crustaceans and aquatic insect larvae.
Miami Aqua-culture, Inc. offers a wide selection of larval shrimp and marine fish diets including Rotifer eggs, live microalgae cultures, and two different strains of Artemia cysts. Most larviculturists are familiar with the high quality eggs we provide harvested from The Great Salt Lake in Utah,
Rotifers act as a vital step in the food chain in the development of the this industry.
The mollusks compose the large phylum of invertebrate animals . Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized. Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms
The Gastropoda or gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, are a large taxonomic class within the phylum Mollusca. The class Gastropoda includes snails and slugs of all kinds and all sizes from microscopic to large
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda. These exclusively marine animals are characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a set of arms or tentacles modified from the primitive molluscan foot.
Mollusks in utah
About139 species of mollusks are known to occur, or within historical times to have occurred, in Utah. The number of known Utah mollusks is not fixed and can be expected to continue to change, increasing as new molluscan discoveries are made in Utah and possibly decreasing as taxonomic revisions change our concept of how many valid mollusk species exist.

The annelids, are a large phylum of segmented worms, with over 17,000 modern species including ragworms, earthworms and leeches
Ragworms or Nereididae are a family of polychaete worms. It contains about 500 – mostly marine – species grouped into 42 genera. They may be commonly called Ragworms or Clam worms
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented animal commonly found living in soil, that feeds on live and dead organic matter. Its digestive system runs through the length of its body. It conducts respiration through its skin.
Leeches are segmented worms that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea. Like other oligochaetes, such as earthworms, leeches share a clitellum and are hermaphrodites.
Annelida in Utah
Leech life
By Joe Bauman, Staff Writer
Published: Wednesday, April 29 1998 12:00 a.m. MDT
Article in the Deseret news
Hovingh is a biologist who works at the Department of Veterans Affairs in Salt Lake City. Some of his leech research has medical applications
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Arthropoda, and include the insects, arachnids, and crustaceans.
Insects are a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.
Like all arthropods, chelicerates have segmented bodies with jointed limbs, all covered in a cuticle made of chitin and proteins. chelicerate bodyplan consists of two tagmata, the cephalothorax and the abdomen, except that mites have lost a visible division between these sections. The chelicerae, which give the group its name, are the only appendages that appear before the mouth. In most sub-groups they are modest pincers used in feeding. However, spiders' chelicerae form fangs which in most species are used to inject venom into their prey.
Crustaceans form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.
Arthropods in Utah
This article and website discuses the problems that have been studied by this institution in relation to insect problems in the state of Utah
phylum of marine animals. The adults are recognizable by their radial symmetry, and include such well-known animals as starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers,
Sea Urchin
Sand Dollar
Sea Cucumber
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea. Common usage frequently finds these names being also applied to ophiuroids, which are correctly referred to as brittle stars or "basket stars"
The sea urchin is a spiny, hard-shelled animal that lives on the rocky seafloor, from shallow waters to great depths. These globular marine invertebrates move very slowly along the seabed. There are about 700 different species of sea urchins worldwide. Many sea urchins have venomous spines. The biggest sea urchin is the red sea urchin (Strongylocentratus franciscanus); it has a test about 7 inches (18 cm) in diameter.
The term sand dollar refers to species of extremely flattened, burrowing sea urchins belonging to the order Clypeasteroida. Some species within the order, not quite as flat, are known as sea biscuits.
Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea. They are marine animals with a leathery skin and an elongated body containing a single, branched gonad. Sea cucumbers are found on the sea floor worldwide.
Echinoderms in Utah
This article discusses the fossil record of Echinoderms in teh state of Utah in Cambrian age rocks.
Chordates are animals possessing a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail for at least some period of their life cycles.
Three of the vertebrate classes are fish. The most primitive of these is Agnatha It consists of jawless fish that do not have scales. These are the lampreys and hagfish. Fish that have skeletons consisting of hard rubber-like cartilage rather than bone are members of the class Chondrichthyes These are the sharks and rays. All of the bony fish are members of the class Osteichthyes . Tuna, bass, salmon, and trout are examples of Osteichthyes.
Animals in the class Amphibia click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced spend part of their lives under water and part on land. Frogs, toads, and salamanders are amphibians. Many of these species must keep their skin moist by periodically returning to wet areas. All of them must return to water in order to reproduce because their eggs would dry out otherwise. They start life with gills, like fish, and later develop lungs to breathe air.
The class Reptilia click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced includes turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, and other large reptiles. All of them have lungs to breathe on land and skin that does not need to be kept wet. They produce an amniote egg which usually has a calcium carbonate rich, leather hard shell that protects the embryo from drying out. This is an advantage over fish and amphibians because the amniote egg can be laid on land where it is usually safer from predators than it would be in lakes, rivers, and oceans.
The class Aves includes all the birds. They also produce amniote eggs but usually give them greater protection from predators by laying them high off of the ground or in other relatively inaccessible locations. In the case of both reptiles and birds, the eggs are fertilized within the reproductive tract of females. There are other striking similarities between reptiles and birds in their anatomies and reproductive systems. This is not surprising because birds are descendents of theropod dinosaurs (two-legged mostly carnivorous dinosaurs).
Dogs, cats, bears, humans and most other large animals today are members of the vertebrate class Mammalia click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced. All mammals conceive their young within the reproductive tract of the mother and, after birth, nourish them with milk produced by their mammary glands click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced. Mammals are heterodonts click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced with strong jaws. That is to say, they have a variety of specialized teeth (incisors, canines, premolars, and molars). This allows them to chew their food into small pieces before swallowing it. Subsequently, they can eat any size plant or animal. Many reptiles must swallow their prey whole, which limits them to hunting smaller game.
Chordates in Utah
Some of teh greatest chordates that ever walked upon the earth are found in the dinosaur fossil beds in Utah. Many are displayed at museums around the state.

For more information on the skeketon check out the web link below

While never visible on an animal from the outside, the endoskeleton is nevertheless an essential aspect of animal anatomy. It is completely contained within the body, and grows as the animal grows.
The Endoskeleton is a supportive connective tissue that provides an attachment point for muscles. The skeleton is pulled by muscles and provides movement.
The endoskeleton provides protection of the internal organs within cavities. Thorasic, Abdominal, Cranial and pelvic.
The endoskeleton provides a long term storage of minerals like calcium and phosphate.
Many insects and crustaceans have exoskeletons, which are tough, shell-like structures that cover the body from the outside. These structures are static, which means that they do not grow. Animals with exoskeletons either remain at a constant size throughout their lives or molt their old exoskeletons in order to generate entirely new ones as they grow.
Since exoskeletons are rigid, they present some limits to growth. Organisms with open shells can grow by adding new material to the aperture of their shell, as is the case in snails, bivalves and other molluscans. A true exoskeleton, like that found in arthropods must be shed (moulted) when it is outgrown
Some vertebrates have specialized sensory organs that allow them to sense changes in their underwater environment.
On land sound and smell are transmitted through the air but underwater sound and smell are transmitted through water molecules. The difference in density between air and water make the movement of these molecules both slower and faster . Smell in the water moves by simple diffusion. Molecules move from high concentration. Sound travels by transmitting energy through water molecules like a wave. Denser materials make sound travel faster because the molecules are closer together.
Check out the video that shows the difference between liquid, solid and Gas transmitting sound waves.
Animals that live in the water are adapted to hear the water with a special sense organ called a Lateral Line.
Many of the organisms that live in the water make no sounds. Predators that live in the water have learned to detect movement with the lateral line.
The same is true for prey, they can sense the movement of a predator and avoid them.
This video shows a large mouth bass and the use of the lateral line.
3 chambered heart
4 chambered Heart
In adult amphibians (above) The pulmonary circuit and systemic circutwstill partially mix in the ventricles of the three-chambered heart.
In reptiles the extent of the mixing is reduced by barrier that partially seperates the ventricle into two chambers.
In mammals (below), the seperation is complete and there is no mixing of O2 poor and O2 rich blood in the heart.

This four chambered heart has its own functional challenges, however. In two- and three- chambered hearts the mixing of O2 poor and O2 rich blood in the heart can provide the heart muscle cells with O2.
Since there is no such mixing in mammals, the side of the heart that pumps O2 poor blood must receive its O2 via a special coronary circulation system.
How efficient a heart needs to be depends on the organism's life style.

Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Endotherms create most of their heat via metabolic processes, and are colloquially referred to as warm-blooded.
Ectotherms use external sources of temperature to regulate their body temperatures. They are colloquially referred to as cold-blooded
Ectothermic aimals rely more on the environment for the regulation of body temperature.
Ectothermic animals also use metabolic processes to regulate body temperature.

Endothermic animals rely more on metabolic processes for regulatipon of body temperature. Endothermic animals also use environmental elements to regulate body temperatures.
There is not clearly a defined separation of Ectotherms and Endotherms as far as maintainance of body temperature. The best measurement between the two animal species is the ammount of energy use to maintain body temperatures based on external temperatures.
Ectotherms use far less energy for development of body temperature
Endotherms use a great deal of energy to maintain body temperature.

Temperature regulation is one of the functions of a living organism to maintain homeostasis.
Positive feed back allows for chang in temperature in an organism to maintain body temperature in one direction. A reptile that basks on a rock causes change in body temperature because of behavior. The reptile may also seek the shage to decrease temeprature if the body has become two hot.
Negative feedback is used by organisms that generate high body heat from metabolic processes. The resulting changes in physiology in the organism will cool the body back to normal to maintain homeostasis . Temperature hange cmay be hot or cold
Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual.
Asexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
In asexual reproduction, an individual can reproduce without involvement with another individual of that species.
The division of a bacterial cell into two daughter cells is an example of asexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction typically requires the involvement of two individuals or gametes, one each from opposite type of sex.
Sea Urchin
Sand dollar
Sea Cucumber
3 Chambered or 4 Chambered hearts
Nervous system
Asexual or Sexual reproduction
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