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Science Revision EOY Exam

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Deanne Hornigold

on 11 November 2013

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Transcript of Science Revision EOY Exam

Science Revision for EOY Exam 2013
Biology
Chemistry
Physics
27. Fully Describe the effect of changing from low to high light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis
Two out of the three points must be made
At low light intensity the photosynthesis
rate is low.
As light intensity increases, the
photosynthesis rate increases.
At high light intensity the rate of
photosynthesis does not increase any
more, but stays roughly constant.
OR a description of low and high.
Must talk about photosynthesis not
numbers of bubbles.

Achieved
28. Explain why the photosynthesis rate does not increase any further at high light intensity by referring to another factor that affects the rate of photosynthesis that has not increased.
Merit
Gives reasons for reaching a maximum.

The photosynthesis rate increases to a maximum then levels off because
EITHER
There is some other factor limiting the rate of photosynthesis such as:
chlorophyll concentration: all chlorophyll are absorbing light energy at maximum rate and can’t absorb any more
OR
CO2 availability: the availability of CO2 is now not enough to keep up with the amount of light being absorbed so it limits the rate of
photosynthesis
OR
All the chloroplasts are functioning at their maximum metabolic rate. They cannot operate any faster.

19. Discuss the importance of the TWO factors necessary for starch production in a leaf that were investigated in the experiment
20. Describe the TWO factors being tested
Excellence
Must have BOTH factors identified plus reason for ONE of the following physiological reasons

Chlorophyll is necessary to trap the light energy required for the photosynthesis process.

Light is necessary for providing the energy for starch production during the photosynthesis process.
AND
Discussion of both light and chlorophyll from the experiment.

The white parts of the leaf have no chlorophyll, so they act as a control for comparison with the green parts of the leaf. Because the starch is only produced in the original green portions of the leaf, chlorophyll must be necessary for starch production.

The shaded portions of the leaf receive no light, and the results show that these portions do not contain starch, whereas the areas that receive light and are green, do contain starch.

The analysis of the results and logical reasoning are needed for Excellence. Knowledge of the investigation is not necessary, just knowledge of the factors required for photosynthesis, and logical reasoning.
Question :Use this experiment to discuss the importance of TWO factors necessary for starch production in a leaf.
15. Name ONE flowering plant that reproduces asexually.
16. Describe how the flowering plant reproduces asexually.
For Achievement, the answer must contain the name of ONE flowering plant that can reproduce asexually,
AND a description or name of the method used by that named plant, eg: \

Potato plants reproduce asexually using stem tubers or tubers.
Strawberry plants reproduce asexually by producing horizontal stems called runners.
Garlic plants reproduce asexually by producing bulbs.
Ginger plants reproduce asexually by producing swollen horizontal underground stems called rhizomes.
Dahlia plants reproduce asexually by producing swollen root tubers.
Gladiolus plants reproduce asexually by producing stacks of stem bases called corms.
Lilac plants can reproduce asexually by producing adventitious shoots from lateral stems that touch the soil. This method is called layering
Achieved
17. Compare and contrast key features of sexual AND asexual reproduction in flowering plants.
18. Explain how sexual and asexual reproduction occur in flowering plants
Achieved
Describes sexual AND asexual reproduction.
Eg:
Asexual reproduction occurs when a plant produces another plant without the mixing of gametes /fertilisation occurring / which is genetically identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction occurs when the plant mixes gametes / genetic material to produce a seed / new plant, which is different from the parent.

22. Name two substances moving into a leaf required for Photosynthesis (the raw materials).
Some of the raw materials a plant needs to carry out photosynthesis are water, carbon dioxide,
chlorophyll and light
Achieved
25. Name and describe the organelle that carries out photosynthesis
Photosynthesis takes place inside plant cells in small things called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain a green substance called chlorophyll. This absorbs the light energy needed to make photosynthesis happen.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/food_chains/revision/2/
23. Name two substances moving out a leaf produced by Photosynthesis.(the products)
The oxygen produced is released into the air from the leaves. The glucose produced can be turned into other substances, such as starch, which is used as a store of energy
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/food_chains/revision/2/
24. Name the energy source for photosynthesis
In photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the form of glucose (sugar). Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water.
http://biology.about.com/od/plantbiology/a/aa050605a.htm
21. Analyse the results of the experiment, given photographs of iodine treated varigated leaves and justify the necessity of these TWO factors for starch production in a leaf.

Excellence
Compares and contrasts the results in terms of presences / absences of
BOTH light: source of energy for photosynthesis and chlorophyll: traps / absorbs the suns energy.

Eg:
The white part of the leaf has no chlorophyll / chloroplasts, this is where the light energy / sunlight is captured / trapped so that photosynthesis doesn’t occur there and the plant produces no starch there, resulting in no blue / black colour after the iodine was added / the green part of the leaf contain chlorophyll / chloroplasts to trap sunlight so photosynthesis could occur there resulting in a blue / black colour when the iodine was added.
AND
The foil covered part of the plant was not able to absorb light / light was excluded meant that there was not light energy for photosynthesis to occur and the plant produces no starch there, resulting in no blue / black colour after the iodine was added / the uncovered part of the leaf was exposed to light so energy could be trapped and photosynthesis could occur resulting in a blue / black colour when the iodine was added.

13. State Leaf size affects the ability of a plant to absorb sunlight and make food. Plants with larger leaves can live in areas with lower light levels.
1. Complete a punnet square.
2. Demonstrate knowledge of selecting alleles when given a photograph
3. Distinguish between gene, allele and genotype
4. From data, identify dominatant and recessive alleles
5. Calculate expected genotype and phenotype ratios from punnet squares
6. Explain phenotype ratios
7. Describe the phenotype given different genotypes.
Question: Breeding Dogs
Question: Sex Inheritance
Question: Plant Genetics
12. Variation of leaf size bar graph
14. Explain what causes variation within a population
8. Complete another punnet square to create an explanation of gender.
9. Predict the percentage of gender in another litter.
10. Discuss the inheritance of the specific sex chromosomes.
11. discuss why the expected ratio is different from the actual ratio of puppies in the first litter.
Question: Sexual Asexual
Question:Your Photosynthesis Investigation
Question: Photosynthesis Process
26. Interpret a rate of photosynthesis graph
Question: Iconic Compounds
Question: Rates of Reaction
Question: Metals and their Reactions
Question: Uses of Metals
29. Define an ion
30. Identify the group on the periodic table wher the two atoms are found.
31. Identify the group on the periodic table where the two atoms are found.
32. Explain why both magnesium and calcium ions have a charge of 2+
33. Given a periodic table, state group number, electron arrangement and charge on the ion for given elements.
34. In a rate of reaction graph. The slope of the graph is steep at the beginning and then levels off over time.
35. Explain the difference in the reaction rate of powered compared with chip reactants.
36. Explain what is happening, in terms of particles, during the reaction.
37. Given a reaction, complete the word and symbol equations to show the reaction stated
When a solid substance is broken up more acid particles can collide with each piece in the same time
(increase in collision frequency)
Female: XX Male: XY

X Y
X XX XY
X XX XY

Expected ratio:
female: 50% male: 50%
The puppy inherits one sex chromosome from each parent. As the mother can only provide an X chromosome, it is the chromosome passed on by the father that determines the sex of the offspring. If he passes on an X chromosome, the puppy will be a female.
http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/nqfdocs/ncea-resource/schedules/2010/90163-ass-2010.pdf
bar graph? When did we do that???

Question A Bicycle Journey
From the graph calculate the acceleration of the student in section A
Interpret a distance time and its speed time graph
In (a) shows understanding of related concepts by calculating the acceleration.
Merit
From the graph shape explain whether the forces in section B are balanced or unbalanced and how this results in the type of motion produced.
From the graph description name the forces involved and describe their relative sizes (you may draw a labelled diagram in the space below to support your answer.)
From the graph link the net force to the type of motion in section B.
Excellence
•Achieved= in (b) states at least ONE pair of forces and their relative sizes
+
Merit= • in (b) explains why the forces are balanced (eg, push and friction are equal and opposite forces; Fnet=0, therefore forces are balanced. Evidence can come from diagram)
+
• Excellence= in (b) shows an understanding of how the zero net force is connected with the type of motion in Section B of the graph
Merit answer for an Excellence question
Calculate the distance travelled in EACH section of the speed-time graph
Use the calculations to draw a distance-time graph for the student’s bike journey.
*to get an excellence for the question, "A Bicycle Journey", this answer and (c)'s answer needs to be at an excellence level.
Excellence
*to get an excellence for the question, "A Bicycle Journey", this answer and (b)'s answer need to be at an excellence level.
Achieved= • in (c) attempts to calculate the distance travelled for ONE section OR completes the graph accurately for at least TWO sections (with the y axis labelled correctly).
Merit= • in (c) shows an understanding of how concepts relate to the situation by completing the calculations accurately for each section and attempting to complete the graph.
Excellence= • in (c) draws appropriately shaped graph based on an understanding of the connection between the gradients of speed-time and distance-time graphs (must have correct distance values on axes).
Question Cranes
Explain why no work has been done even though the cable pulls
Merit
Achieved=• in (a), makes an accurate statement concerning the motion of the car (eg, there is no motion, or the force is not causing the movement of the car or similar)
Merit =• in (a) fully explains how the motion of the car is affected by the forces acting on it OR mathematical justification
Calculate the power output of the crane to pull the car up.
Excellence
• Excellence= in (b) shows an understanding of how the TWO formulae relate to the context by accurately calculating the power output
*to get an excellence for the question, "Cranes", this answer and (c)'s answer need to be at an excellence level.
Use the value of the crane’s force to determine the mass of the car.
Compare and contrast mass and weight, use a diagram

Excellence
*to get an excellence for the question, "Cranes", this answer and (b)'s answer need to be at an excellence level.
Excellence= • in (c) connects the calculation of the mass of the car with the physics principles underlying the formula used, distinguishing between mass and weight.
Question Standing On Snow
Calculate the pressure that ski produces
Excellence
• Excellence= in (a) shows an understanding of how, force, area, and pressure are connected in the given situation by accurately calculating the pressure
Describe the relationship between pressure and surface area
Discuss effectiveness of each ski style
Excellence
Excellence=• in (b) supports the correct identification with a complete logical argument based on the connections between the physics concepts involved including calculations
Question Skiing Down a Slope
Given a scale diagram, calculate the skier’s speed.
Achieved
Achieved= • in (a) calculates the average speed
Name the type of energy the skier has at the top of the slope.
Calculate this energy

Merit
•Merit= in (b) shows understanding of related concepts by finding the kinetic energy with unit
State the expected energy at the bottom, type and number
Explain why it would not actually be this
Excellence
Excellence= • in (c) connects the justification for the difference in energy between the top and bottom of the slope with the relevant physics principles showing calculations and discussing frictional forces causing energy loss as heat.
The variation in plants of species
variation is caused by changes in genetic information (mutations)
It may be due ti differences (mutations) in the sequence of bases in a particular gene.
Explanation of fate of poorly adapted plants
Plants with average or small leaves will not be able to absorb enough sunlight and make sufficient food. When environmental conditions are changes to lower light level, the lareger leaves of some plants means that they are better adapted to survive and reproduce, thus ensuring the survival of some individuals, and hence the species)
In time plants with small leaves in the forest floor might die off.
Okay, as no specifics have been given I'm just going to make diagrams of all of the (basic) punnet squares that could show up in the test.
Alleles can be any feature passed down through a family, generation after generation. When looking at a photo try do distinguish features such as hair colour, eye colour, skin tone etc DO NOT classify variable features such as hair length and weight as a Alleles, although genetics can play a part in both of these features, these are classified as environmental variables.

Gene - A segment of DNA with a special pair of bases, which code for an
inherited characteristic.
Allele - A genetic variable.
Genotype - A genetic variation that can not be seen.

Just think logically and calmly it should be pretty easy to figure out ~Connor Wallace~
Now this is easy, just count the number of combinations containing capital letters, (which are dominant) and count the number of combinations without (purely recessive) write a number on the left hand side of a colon mark to represent the amount of dominant combinations and a number on the right hand side to represent the purely recessive combinations, if necessary simplify
A phenotype shows the rough, statistical chances of what traits offspring should inherit.

Just think logically and calmly, it should be pretty easy to work out
Even though the amount per litter is not given predict half, it may not actually be 'reality' accurate, yet it is statistically accurate.
All egg cells contain a single X chromosome (this is because this is the only sex chromosome that females have to 'give'). However 50% of sperm cells contain a single X chromosome whilst 50% contain a single Y chromosome (this is because males have two different sex chromosomes and can therefore pass on two different sex chromosomes). If a sperm cell carrying an X chromosome fertilises an egg cell then a female is produced, however if a sperm cell carrying a Y chromosome fertilises an egg cell a male is produced. Gender determination is a 50/50 split (1:1).

The expected ratio is statistically accurate however it does not factor in random chance. Inheritance is just random chance and once a variable has been 'used' it does not now become unavailable, this is why not every family with two children have a son and a daughter.

Variation within a population is caused by success, the more successful an animal or plants' characteristics are the more successful the animal/plant will be and the more successful a plant/animal is (in most cases) the more likely that it will breed and pass on it's variables to the next generation.

Plants can asexually reproduce naturally in two ways by utilising two
different processes, by Vegetative Reproduction or/and by Apomixis. In
Vegetative Reproduction plants grow roots (called runners) out sideways
which develop into 'daughter' plants, these new plants are genetically identical
to their 'parent' plant from which the originated from, eventually when the
new plant is well established the runner connecting the two plants will break,
halting the share of nutrient between the two and officially producing a new,
individual, plant. In Apomixis plants simply asexually reproduce by Self -
Pollination, releasing seeds that are genetically identical to themselves.
Plants can also reproduce asexually through cuttings, clippings etc.

The Anther of a flower produces pollen in which the male gametes are
contained, if successfully blown by the wind or transported by insects the
pollen should land on a Carpel, from there the pollen will grow pollen tubes
down into the Style of the Carpel, at the base of the Style is where the egg cells
are located and where fertilisation occurs.

(I'm assuming that this is about the Variegated Leaf Experiment, or to put it more simply 'the one with the black paper E') anyways Chlorophyll and Sunlight.
Chlorophyll is a green coloured substance contained within Chloroplasts, it is
capable of storing the sun's energy. Sunlight is the light and heat energy
produced by the Sun that has managed to make it through the Earth's
atmosphere.

Starch is ONLY present in the regions of the leaf which both
had Chlorophyll and were supplied with sunlight. The region of the leaf
covered with the black paper did have chlorophyll however it did not have
sunlight and could therefore NOT produce starch. The white part of the leaf
was supplied with sunlight however it did not contain any chlorophyll and it
therefore could NOT produce starch.

Sunlight is a vital reactant in the production of starch through
photosynthesis. Chlorophyll enables a plant to store sunlight and is therefore
equally as vital to the process.
Sunlight, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and technically Water, (but I think the question is only asking for the first two).
Glucose and Oxygen.
The Sun
In plants photosynthesis takes place within the Chloroplasts, within the
leaves.
Along the X axis should run either CO2 or Sunlight whilst along the Y axis should run the rate or photosynthesis, what is important is the fact that there is always a limiting value (even if it is not labeled) as explained two targets down
When light is at high intensity (day) plants will produce Glucose through photosynthesis as they have an ongoing supply of reactants. Plants will also immediately turn Glucose into Starch as it is not water soluble whilst Glucose is. When light is at low intensity (night) plants will stop photosynthesis and stop producing Glucose/Starch. Plants will now slowly transform Starch back into Glucose and then transport it down through their phloems and into their roots for storage
Light intensity by referring to another factor that affects the rate of photosynthesis that has not increased. The rate of photosynthesis can not increase indefinitely as even when light intensity is high, and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) supplies are practically limitless water is not, and all three are required for photosynthesis.
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