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“Satisfaction with Work-Life Balance Programs and its Relationship with Work-Related Out
Transcript of “Satisfaction with Work-Life Balance Programs and its Relationship with Work-Related Out
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Chapter I Chapter III PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
CHAPTER IV Introduction Work and life have always been two different things and they don’t seem to go together. Workers, specifically those who have mouths to feed, got used to the habit of leaving their personal lives at home. And when they get home, their work lives should be left at their workplace. Hence, “work and personal life had been seen as competing priorities in which a gain one area means a loss in the other.” (Friedman, Christensen, & Degroot, 2000 p.1) Work-balance is “helping employees to integrate their work and personal lives by adopting imaginative and flexible approaches which benefit both themselves and the business” (De Leon, Munsayac, & Camacho, 2002, p.10).
The design of this approach depends on the principles of persistently search for ways to line business with personal goals and at the same time recognizing that employees have responsibilities beyond the workplace.
In the past 10 years, an increasing interest in balancing work and family life emerges in the Philippine organizations. This has resulted to more and more organizations instigating work-life programs.
The positive outcomes of the implementation of work-life balance programs showed that employees active in programs expressed less family conflict and stress (Gerbhardt & Crump, 1990; Goff, Mount & Jamison, 1990).
Theoretical Framework In this appreciative study for broad Work-life theories, which fall into the enrichment/expansionist category, were examined and asses their capacity to inform the study and design of a professional development program.
We have four work-life theories:
Work-life Border Theory (Clark 2000, Sigh 2002),
Work-life Expansion Theory (Barnett,2011),
Theory of Work-Family enrichment (Greenhaus,2006),
Balanced Work-life: A Matter of Balance (Limouges, 2003).
The contribution of Border Theory in understanding work-life issues is underlined by Hyman (2004), who places the issues of boundary management at the core of work-life balance, attain that it is necessary element of securing balance between work and non-work. Work-life Border Theory (Clark 2000, Sigh 2002) Clark’s (2000) definition of borders encompasses psychological categories and tangible boundaries that divide the times place and people associated with work versus family. Work-life Border theories distinguish three of boundaries between work and non-work domain: Physical, Temporal, and Psychological.
The work of Nipper-Eng (1996) which explores issues over placement and transcendence of work and non-work boundaries and Perlow (1998) in study o a work unit 38 comprising seventeen professionals in a high-technology firm, exploded the nature of the temporal demands at work, it also considered the effects on the structuring of both work time and non-work time and made the observation while all employees in the study aced boundary control some were acceptors and others resistors. Spouses, also included in the study had either acceptor or resistor reactions
Singh (2002) uses Clark’s (2000) Work-Family Border Theory repositioned as Work-Life Border Theory, to underpin research into manager’s strategies for work-life balance and maps these strategies according to levels of accommodation or negotiation with the organization or with the family- an approach which draws on Perlov’s (1998) categorization (above).
Work-life Expansion Theory (Barnett, 2011) Barnett (2001) proposes a Work-family Expansionist Theory in which multiple roles are seen to be benefit for men and women. Performance in one role, it is argued, can facilitate performance in the roles. Barnett also questions whether some gender and work-life balance theories may be outdated contending that opportunity structures at work-life balance.
Theory of Work-Family enrichment (Greenhaus, 2006)
Work Family (or Work-Life) enrichment (Greenhuas, 2006) describes a theoretical model (Appendix 1) that indentifies the types of work and family resources that have a capacity to promote work-family enrichment.
Balanced Work-life: A Matter of Balance (Limouges, 2003)
Limoges (2003) approaches the issues from a career planning perspective and includes taxonomy of work-life strategies.
Conceptual Framework Figure 1
Research Paradigm of the Study Statement of the Problem What is the profile of the PS Bank employees in terms of the following variables?
Length of service
Educational Attainment Level of wellness status in terms of the following?
Pay and Benefits
Management Concern and Interest
Career Growth and Opportunities
Rewards and Recognition
Relationship with Supervisors
Relationship with Co-workers Levels of job performance of the following?
Respect for Individuals Is there a significant relationship between work-life balance and work-related outcomes of PS Bank employees?
Is there a significant relationship between work-life balance and work-related outcomes to the following variables?
Length of Service
Educational Attainment Is there a significant relationship between satisfaction with work-life balance program and work related outcomes of the respondents?
Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant relationship between satisfaction with work-life balance programs and work-related outcomes. Ho: There is no significant relationship among the age of the employee of PS Bank, satisfaction with work-life balance programs and work-related outcomes. Ho: There is no significant relationship among the gender of the employee of PS Bank, satisfaction with work-life balance programs and work-related outcomes. Ho: There is no significant relationship among the length of service of the employee of PS Bank, satisfaction with work-life balance programs and work-related outcomes. Ho: There is no significant relationship among the civil status of the employee of PS Bank, satisfaction with work-life balance programs and work-related outcomes. Ho: There is no significant relationship among the educational attainment of the employee of PS Bank, satisfaction with work-life balance programs and work-related outcomes. Scope and Delimitations The participants were employees of PSBank. Neither gender nor ethnicity does limit the scope. The instrument used was a 70-item questionnaire developed by Victoriano Tirol of the Bohol University, namely Victoriano Tirol Quality of Work-life and Work Performance Perceptionnaire with a four-point scale. It is being noted that PS Bank implements several work-life balance programs for their employees. The population of the company was large but governing an appropriate sampling and these instruments will accede researchers to generate the results easily. This research does not measure the amount of work-life balance programs provided by the said company.
Significance of the Study Human Resource Managers
Industrial and Organizational Psychology Majors
Definition of Terms
Turnover Intentions (TI)
Task Specific Behaviour
Non-task Specific Behaviour
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES Foreign Literature Total health is a combination of a physical, emotional, social and spiritual component of life, balanced in a way that produces satisfaction and happiness for the individual. To accomplish this goal, each individual must engaged in wellness activities such as proper nutrition, exercising regularly, abstaining from substance abuse, or any other unhealthy practice like smoking and effectively dealing with stress. Each person must foster attitudes that improve the quality of life and expand the human potential. (Blumenthal, 1997)
Local Literature For an organization to achieve success, it would do well to focus on how it harnesses the abilities and talents of its workforce, encourages the development of skills and nurtures productive and rewarding relationships. This is clearly stating that whatever that positively influences job performance should be of its organization management’s interest. There are some key observations: first, that job satisfaction positively affects performance; second, that certain personality traits and factors of self-evaluation have significant correlations with job satisfaction; third, that self-evaluation has a significant correlation with autonomous goal motivation and satisfaction; fourth, that autonomous goal motivation has a significant correlation with performance; fifth, that life satisfaction has a significant correlation with job satisfaction; and sixth, that there is reason to believe that increased levels of performance would lead to increased self-evaluation paving the way for a possible virtuous cycle. (Bryan, 2007)
Foreign Studies Another research relevant to this study is a research by Blum, Fields, and Goodman (1994). Their research showed that they did not find any effects of work-life practices on employees’ work-life conflict levels. They concluded that providing such work-life practices does not necessarily mean that it will entail a reduction in levels of work-life conflict. This may be due to the workers’ different preferences for work and family roles. Certain work-life practices may be ineffective in reducing inter-role conflict if they do not cater to a worker’s particular values, needs, or preferences for managing multiple roles. (Loscocco, 1997)
Local Studies In a research study made by the BPO branch in the Philippine Islands, which has the title “Work Organization and Work-Life Balance in the BPO Sector: the Experiences of Selected BPO Workers in Metro Manila” made by Manuel and Ramos (2001).from the University of the Philippines, they want to find out five things. First, the general work organization of BPOs, then the available benefits and programs of BPO’s employees. Next is, do the existing benefits and programs to promote work balance and to know the perception of the employees in their work balance condition in their respected organization. Last is, what the BPO workers want to achieve in their work-life balance.
Relevance to the Study All of the studies and literatures, disregarding if it’s foreign or local, claim that an organization needs to have work-life balance programs for their employees. Simply because they want what is best for their company. If so, the total health of their employees was being contemplated. Because if there is any maladjusted component of life which is composed of physical, emotional, social and spiritual aspect, an individual might not function well. That’ the very reason why organization nowadays consider having the work-life balance programs, so they’ll not only perform better at work but also in everyday living that will make them satisfy and happy. The companies with work-life balance measures are also said to be benefited. Since they gave advanced support in work-life balance, it gave them faster sales growth, as they focus both on high degree of family friendliness and equal opportunity. METHODOLOGY Research Design For this study, the descriptive-normative survey research method was used to have a more logical investigation. As described by Sanchez (2001), the used of descriptive research is directed toward ascertaining the prevailing conditions, that is, facts that prevail in a group of cases chosen for the study.
Population, Sample and Sampling Technique This study aims to determine the satisfaction of employees to the work-life balance programs provide by the company. The respondents of the study were composed of one hundred permanent employees who have at least two years of service in the PS Bank Company. The researchers will gather data within the boundaries of the said company. Sampling Technique
The researcher used purposive sampling for the selection of the respondents coming from the PSBank.
Description of the Respondents
The study will have PS Bank as their respondents. All of these participants were selected through purposive sampling. This sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. Research Instruments
The instrument used in gathering the necessary data for the investigation is a survey-type questionnaire which is the Victoriano Tirol Quality of Work-life and Work Performance Perceptionnaire.
The set of questionnaire was structured using the Likert format with a four-point response scale.
A Likert Scale is a rating scale that requires the subject to indicate his or her degree of agreement or disagreement to a statement. In this type of questionnaire, the respondents were given five response choices. These options served as the quantification of the participants' agreement or disagreement on each question item.
In order to gather the necessary data, the researchers utilized the descriptive method, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. A total of 100 respondents were randomly selected as participants. The survey-questionnaire method was the research instruments used for data-gathering.
Percentage. The percentage was used to compare frequency of the responses of the respondents. The formula is:
P = n x 100
Weighted Mean. The technique is used to measure the central tendency where some values are given importance over the others. This was used to gauge the average value of the responses items in the questionnaire. The formula is:
X = fx
X = weighted mean
E = symbol for summation
f = frequency of response
x = scale value
N = total number of respondents
Mann-Whitney Test. A non-parametric test that compares the mean values of two samples and this is used to assess whether one of two samples of independent observations tends to have larger values than the other.
Kruskal-Wallis Test. It is used for comparing more than two samples that are independent, or not related.
Test for the Significant Difference of Educational Attainment to Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes
Rank Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes According to Length of Service Table 16
Test for the Significant Difference of Length of Service to Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes Table 14
Test for the Significant Difference of Civil Status to Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes Table 13
Rank Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes According to Civil Status Table 12
Test for the Significant Difference of Age to Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes
Test for the Significant Difference of Gender to Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes
Rank Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes According to Gender
Respect for Individuals
Part II Work Performance
Job Satisfaction Relationship with Co-workers Rewards and Recognition
Part I. Quality of Work life
Pay and Benefits Table 5
Frequency Distribution of Respondents According to Educational Attainment Table 2
Frequency Distribution of Respondents According to Gender Table 1
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Table 15
Rank Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes According to Length of Service Table 11
Rank Quality of Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcomes According to Age Table 8
Test for the Correlation of Quality of Work-Life Balance Programs and Work-Related Outcomes Employee Commitment Relationship with Supervisor Career Growth and Opportunities Management Concern and Interest
Frequency Distribution of Respondents According to Length of Service
Frequency Distribution of Respondents According to Civil Status
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
The major purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of work-life balance and work-related outcomes of PS Bank employees. It also determines the relationship of work-life balance and work-related outcomes to age, gender, and length of service, civil status and educational attainment of the employees.
HYPOTHESIS There is a significant relationship between the work-life balance and work related outcomes of PS Bank employees.
There is no significant relationship between the work-life balance and length of service of PS Bank employees. There is no significant relationship between the work-related outcomes and length of service of PS Bank employees.
There is no significant relationship between the work-life balance and age of PS Bank employees. There is no significant relationship between the work-related outcomes and gender of PS Bank employees. There is no a significant relationship between the work-life balance and gender of PS Bank employees. There is no significant relationship between the work-related outcomes and gender of PS Bank employees.
There is no a significant relationship between the work-life balance and civil status of PS Bank employees. There is no significant relationship between the work-related outcomes and civil status of PS Bank employees. There is no significant relationship between the work-life balance and educational attainment of PS Bank employees. There is no significant relationship between the work-related outcomes and educational attainment of PS Bank employees.
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY There were 100 employees of PS bank selected. There were 90% (90 respondents) were age 20-29 years old,6% (6 respondents) were age 30-39 years old and 4% (4 respondents) were age 40-49 years old. As of gender, there were 54% (54 respondents) were male and 46% (46 respondents) were female. There were also 87% (87 respondents) were single, 12% (12 respondents) were married and 1% (1 respondent) was separated. In terms of length of service, 86% (86 respondents) were 2-5 years in service, 11% (11 respondents) were 6-10 years in service and 3% (3 respondents) were 11-15 years in service. Employees who were a college graduate has a frequency distribution of 87% (87 respondents), 12% ( 12 respondents) have a unit in Master’s Degree and only 1% (1 respondent) have a Master’s Degree.
The study shows that the level of satisfaction with work-life balance program of PS Bank employees in terms of Pay and Benefits (Q1 Compared with people in similar jobs, my pay here is adequate: Agree with a weighted mean of 3. 21) (Q2 Pay here is commensurate to one’s workload: Agree with a weighted mean of 3.47.) (Q3 Doing my job well will lead to better pay (merit increase, promotion): Agree with a weighted mean of 3.29) (Q4 Employees are satisfied with the amount of pay, especially after implementing the Salary Standardization Law: Agree with a weighted mean of 3.11) (Q5 There is a definite system of financial and promotional advancement: Agree with a weighted mean of 3.48) (Q6 The salary structure motivates employees to strive for their professional growth: Agree with a weighted mean of 3.40) (Q7 The benefits that the company provides are satisfactory: Agree with a weighted mean of 3.23) (Q8 I am satisfied with the program of the company: Agree with a weighted mean of 3.46) with an overall equivalent of 3.33 which is Agree.
The study shows that satisfaction with work-life balance programs has a very highly significant correlation with work-related outcomes
CONCLUSION There is a significant relationship between satisfaction with work-life balance programs and work related outcomes. This only shows that when an employee is not satisfied with the benefits on wellness programs the company provides, his/her work output will also be affected. So the benefits or the programs are also important for an employee to achieve a good work output. Since the work performance of an employee truly contributes to the success of the organization.
In gender, there is no significant difference among female employees in satisfaction with Work-Life Balance but there is a significant difference among them in their Work Related Outcomes. This means that gender doesn’t affect the satisfaction of employees to the Work-Life Balance Program given by the company but the Work performance is affected by gender. The study shows that female employees tend to be having a better Work Performance rather than those male employees.
There is no significant difference in the length of service in satisfaction with work life balance programs but there is a significant difference in work related outcomes. The studies shows that new employees tend to have higher work performance than those of employees who have longer service in the company. This states that even if an employee serves the company for how many years, this will not make any difference towards his/her satisfaction with the programs but affecting his/her effectiveness as an employee.
There is no significant relationship among civil status with Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcome. Even though married, single, nor widowed, this does not affect the satisfaction of the employees to the company. There is no significant relationship among educational attainment with Work-Life Balance Program and Work Related Outcome. The employees with bachelor degree and master’s degree are not that satisfied towards company’s benefits. RECOMMENDATION Most of the employees of PS Bank showed that they are satisfied with the work-life balance programs given to them by the company. Thus giving the employees’ higher work performance. The company then should sustain and keep up their programs to maintain and to improve the productivity of their employees.
The management should always encourage the employees to involve themselves in the company’s wellness programs.
The HR personnel should assess their employees to know what program/s they are likely to join and so will let them be informed enough of the programs to be improved, and even potential programs to be added.
The administration should provide enough budgets in order for the company to properly implement their work life programs so that their employees will be encouraged to practice the wellness programs they provide. This will surely enhance the employees’ abilities making them increase their productivity resulting to the good performance of their company.
END . . .